Video: Parasitic Worms, Pt. 1

Click here to view the original post.

Video: Parasitic Worms, Pt. 1

VIDEO: PARASITIC WORMS, PART 1

It’s important to realize that infections not commonly seen today may become major issues if a disaster throws you off the grid. Knowing which disease-causing organisms exist in your area, even if they are not common problems today, will be important to keep your loved ones healthy.

The word “parasite” comes from the Greek word Parastos, meaning “someone that eats at someone else’s table”. When we think of parasites, none give us the creeps more than the thought of having worms.

In this video, Joe Alton MD discusses some of the basics of parasitic worm infections, including what to expect in terms of symptoms, and much more. Part 1 of a 2 part series.

To watch, click below:

Wishing you the best of  health in good times or bad,

Joe Alton MD

Fill those holes in your medical supplies by checking out Nurse Amy’s entire line of kit and medical supplies at store.doomandbloom.net. Our products are all eligible to be covered under health and flexible savings accounts.

Get your family medically prepared.  You’ll be glad you did!

Survival Medicine Hour: Backcountry Safety, Doxycycline, Lyme Disease

Click here to view the original post.

Survival Medicine Hour: Backcountry Safety, Doxycycline, Lyme Disease

SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR PODCAST

School’s out and a great way to teach your family survival basics is by taking them camping. The skills needed for successful camping are akin to those required for the activities of daily survival. Once learned, these lessons last a lifetime. There’s no greater gift that you can give young people than the ability to be self-reliant.

Camping trips create bonds and memories that will last a lifetime.  A poorly planned campout, however, can become memorable in a way you don’t want, especially if someone gets injured. Luckily, a few preparations and an evaluation of your party’s limitations will help you enjoy a terrific outing with the people you care about, and maybe impart some skills that would serve them well in dark times.

Plus, identifying a common summer infection, Lyme disease, that can have long-term effects. Treatment, prevention, and more, plus a discussion of a popular broad-spectrum antibiotic that treats Lyme and many other diseases, Doxycycline. Learn indications, side effects, dosing, and much more.

Plus, a discussion of an exaggerated form of a common pregnancy complaint: nausea and vomiting. When it’s excessive, it’s called hyperemesis and can cause dehydration, weight loss, and in austere settings, can become life-threatening.

All this and much more on the latest Survival Medicine Hour with Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP!

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2018/06/08/survival-medicine-hour-backcountry-safety-doxycycline-lyme

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

Learn more about all of the above and 150 other medical topics with a copy of the award-winning Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook, available at Amazon or at https://store.doomandbloom.net!

9 Deadly Infections People Will Get After The SHTF

Click here to view the original post.

There are plenty of threats that people associate with a major disaster. Infection, however, is rarely one of the first threats to come to mind. Nevertheless, it is one of the most dangerous. In the absence of modern medicine and modern conveniences, deadly infections will run rampant, potentially killing millions of people. Below is a […]

The post 9 Deadly Infections People Will Get After The SHTF appeared first on Urban Survival Site.

Sulfonamides (Sulfa Drugs) in Survival

Click here to view the original post.

Sulfonamides (Sulfa Drugs) in Survival

SULFONAMIDES IN SURVIVAL SETTINGS 

The availability of antibiotics to the family medic in survival and other austere settings may prevent the unnecessary deaths of loved ones due to infection. When help is not on the way, the average citizen will find these drugs to be important tools in the medical woodshed.

You might think that Penicillin family drugs were the first to be used by the general public, but another popular family of antibiotics called sulfonamides, or sulfa drugs, were actually on the market even earlier. Indeed, it has been called “the first miracle drug”. Sulfonamides deserve credit for saving tens of thousands of lives during World War Two. It was so widely used that many soldiers’ first aid kits came with the drug in pill or powder form. Medics were told to pour it into any open wound.

Sulfonamides were first identified to have antibacterial action by a German scientist named Gerhard Domagk, who evaluated certain dyes for possible medical uses. He found a red dye produced by Bayer (yes, that Bayer) that apparently eliminated bacterial infections in mice. This became “Prontosil”, credited as the first broad-spectrum antibiotic. Interestingly, it didn’t show a lot of antibacterial action in test tubes; Prontosil’s effect was much more noticeable on a live subject.

Another interesting tidbit about Sulfa drugs is that the active ingredient had been used by the dye industry for decades, so no patent could be obtained. Bayer had to share the ingredient with anyone who wanted to use it, eliminating the potential for big profits. This led to many different variations, some of which were “snake oil” that contained toxic ingredients. One such elixir killed a hundred people in 1937, leading to the enactment of the first serious oversight of pharmaceuticals, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938.

HOW SULFA DRUGS BATTLE INFECTION

Sulfonamides act to inhibit an enzyme involved in folate synthesis, an important aspect of bacterial DNA production. This family of drugs is bacteriostatic; that is, they don’t directly kill the bacteria, but inhibit growth and multiplication. If bacteria are unable to multiply, they can’t sustain the population needed to damage the body.

A commonly used sulfonamide is the combination drug sulfamethoxazole 400 or 800mg and trimethoprim 80 or 160 mg, known by the brand names Bactrim or Septra in the U.S. In Great Britain, it is called Co-Trimoxazole (Cotrim). A veterinary equivalent is known as Fish-Sulfa or Bird-Sulfa.

ASIDE: Different antibiotics (or other drugs) may be combined into one product. Usually, this is done because the two work together to have a stronger effect against an infection or other condition than they would if used alone. This is called “synergism”.

INDICATIONS

Broad-spectrum Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim is effective in the treatment of many infections, including:

· Some upper and lower respiratory infections (chronic bronchitis and pneumonia)
· Kidney and bladder infections
· Ear infections in children
· Cholera
· Intestinal infections caused by E. coli and Shigella bacteria (a cause of dysentery)
· Skin and wound infections, including MRSA
· Traveler’s diarrhea
· Acne

Of course, as an antibiotic, no sulfonamide has any effect on viruses or viral illnesses.

DOSING

The usual dosage in adults is sulfamethoxazole 800-mg/Trimethoprim 160mg twice a day for most of the above conditions for 10 days (5 days for traveler’s diarrhea).

The recommended dose for pediatric patients with urinary tract infections or acute otitis media (ear infection) is 40 mg/ kg sulfamethoxazole and 8mg/kg trimethoprim per 24 hours, given in two divided doses every 12 hours, for 10 days. 1 kilogram equals 2.2 pounds. This medication should not be used in infants 2 months old or younger.

In rat studies, the use of this drug was seen to cause birth defects; therefore, it is not used during pregnancy.
Another sulfa drug, Sulfadiazine, is combined with Silver to make Silvadene, a cream useful for aiding the healing process in skin wounds and burns. Cover completely twice a day.

Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim and other Sulfonamides are well known to cause allergic reactions in some individuals. These reactions to sulfa drugs are almost as common as Penicillin allergies, and usually manifest as rashes, hives, and/or nausea and vomiting. Worse reactions, however, can cause blood disorders as well as severe skin, liver, and pancreatic damage. Those with conditions relating to these organs should avoid the drug.

Although an allergy to Sulfa drugs may be common, it is not the same allergy as to Penicillin. Those allergic to Penicillin can take Sulfa drugs, although it’s possible to be allergic to both.

Sulfonamides and other antibiotics aren’t candy, and they must be used wisely and only when absolutely necessary. In normal times, seek out qualified medical professionals before you consider their use.

Joe Alton MD

Learn more about Sulfa Drugs and other survival antibiotics in the Book Excellence Award winner in Medicine, The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for when Medical Help is Not on the Way, available on Amazon or this website.

Digestion System and Complaints Part II

Click here to view the original post.

Digestion System and Complaints Part II
Cat Ellis “Herbal Prepper Live” Audio player below!

This episode continues our series on the digestive system with a look at some viral and parasitic infections which are currently both common and generally easy to survive. However, in a post disaster scenario, could become far more serious. We will also discuss one more bacterial infection that will become a far more common, serious threat- cholera.

Continue reading Digestion System and Complaints Part II at Prepper Broadcasting Network.

What Are Pathogens?

Click here to view the original post.

What Are Pathogens?

PATHOGENS (DISEASE-CAUSING ORGANISMS)

An infection is defined as the invasion of the body by microscopic organisms. A pathogen is any agent that can cause a disease, but the term is usually used to describe a microbe. Microscopic germs cause injury to tissues in a number of ways, often by producing toxic substances that damage the cells.

Before we give every micro-organism a bad name, it’s important to know that they are not all pathogenic. In fact, some are beneficial or even necessary for human life, such as many intestinal bacteria.

Pathogens are often carried by “vectors”, from the Latin word vectus, “one who carries”. These are humans, animals, or microbes that carry and transmit a pathogen to others. A vector does not have to be ill to carry a disease: A mosquito, for example, carries the organism that causes malaria in humans but doesn’t experience the disease.

Another example of a disease vector was a domestic servant known as “Typhoid Mary”. She carried Typhoid fever to many people at homes where she worked without feeling sick herself. The elimination of a vector from the environment (terminating Mary’s employment, for example) usually ends the outbreak of disease.

BACTERIA

There are a number of different pathogens that cause infectious disease. Perhaps the one we hear most about is bacteria.  By the way, the word bacteria is the plural form. A single one is called a bacterium.

Bacteria were among the first life forms on Earth and are present everywhere from the soil to the bottom of the ocean to the inside of your body. They may even exist on Mars. If you took the entire population of bacteria on the planet, they would probably have a mass about equal to the entire plant and animal population combined. 

Bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods to spirals. When bacteria reach a certain size, they reproduce by splitting in two, a process called binary fission.

Many bacteria are good guys. Some, however, are pathogens and cause infectious diseases, including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy, and bubonic plague. The most common fatal bacterial diseases affect the lungs, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people a year, mostly in underdeveloped countries.

There are many different types of bacteria. Most bacteria don’t need to enter the host’s cells to reproduce, they do just fine in, for example, your blood. A subgroup of bacteria called Rickettsia, however, does depend on entry, growth, and reproduction within a host cell.

Rickettsiae are the cause of typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and a number of other infectious diseases. Rickettsia do not, however, cause rickets, a deformity of long bones in young children which is a result of vitamin D deficiency.

Although many bacteria have become resistant, they can usually be killed with antibiotics. Different bacteria are sensitive to different antibiotics.

VIRUSES 

Viruses are microscopic pathogens that, unlike most bacteria, can reproduce only inside the living cells of other organisms. Viral particles without a host are known as “virions”, and only act as a living organism when they enter a host cell. Indeed, they stretch the definition of life itself. Viruses can infect all types of hosts, from animals and plants all the way down to bacteria.

Examples of common human diseases caused by viruses include the common cold, influenza, chickenpox, rabies, hepatitis, herpes, Ebola, and Zika.

Viruses can be spread by:

•            Mosquitoes and other vectors

•            Airborne droplets in coughs or sneezes

•            Contact with blood or other bodily fluids

•            Ingestion of contaminated food or water

A normal immune system can often kill the infecting virus. However, some viruses evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections, such as HIV or Hepatitis C. There are antiviral drugs, but it’s important to know that antibiotics have no effect.

PROTOZOA

Protozoa are one-celled microbes, a step up on the scale as they exhibit animal-like behavior, such as the ability to move. Many have a tail-like appendage called a flagella that they whip around for locomotion. They are restricted to moist or aquatic environments. Therefore, transmission is mostly by drinking contaminated water, although some are transmitted by animal vectors.

Protozoa cause infectious diseases in humans such as malaria, giardia, some dysenteries, sleeping sickness, and amoebiasis. A common vaginal infection is caused by a protozoan called trichomonas.

Protozoa are usually susceptible to treatment with certain antibiotics, such as metronidazole (also known as Fish-Zole in its veterinary equivalent).

FUNGI

A fungus (plural form: fungi) is a microorganism family that consists of such yeasts and molds. Fungal infections most commonly affect skin and mucous membranes like the oral cavity and vagina, but can invade other areas. Fungus affecting the toes is known as tinea pedis, or “athlete’s foot”. “Ringworm” is another type of fungal infection. Severe internal fungal infections can occur in individuals with weakened immune systems. Anti-fungal medications exist in topical or oral form, like miconazole or clotrimazole.

These are just some of the hazards that you’ll face if you take responsibility for the medical well-being of others in times of trouble. Learn about them, get some training and skills, and you’ll keep it together, even if everything else falls apart.

Joe Alton MD

Video: Lyme Disease

Click here to view the original post.

Video: Lyme Disease

VIDEO: LYME DISEASE

Summer is upon us, and with school out, families will be out and about in our national parks and elsewhere in the great outdoors. The Great Outdoors is, indeed, great, but there are risks, and they include more than falling off a cliff or encountering an irritable moose. Some of God’s smaller creatures, like the blacklegged tick pictured above, can carry diseases that have long-term consequences. One of these is Lyme Disease, first identified as such in the 1970’s in Old Lyme, Connecticut.

In this video, Joe Alton MD tell you all about the basics of Lyme Disease, and together with his last video on tick bites, will give you a sound fund of knowledge that will help you identify, treat, and prevent it.

To watch, click below:

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP

Find out more about Lyme Disease and 150 other medical topics on or off the grid with the award-winning 700-page third edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way!

Digestion Complaints and Natural Remedies

Click here to view the original post.

Digestion Complaints and Natural Remedies

Listen in to The Herbal Prepper in player below for the first of a two-part series on herbs and other natural remedies for the digestion system. Part One will cover infections, while next week’s episode will cover chronic complaints.

E-coli, salmonella, rotovirus, norovirus, giardia, botulism- nothing stops you in your tracks quite like a stomach bug. The severe cramping, dehyration, and worse is nothing to take lightly. Even a mild case can cause you to stay at home near a bathroom!

Continue reading Digestion Complaints and Natural Remedies at Prepper Broadcasting Network.

VIDEO: All About Tick Bites

Click here to view the original post.

VIDEO: All About Tick Bites

ALL ABOUT TICK BITES

Backcountry hikes are a great way to commune with nature, but not by encountering bears, cougars, or an irritable moose. In Spring and Summer, we also have to worry about insects like mosquitoes and ticks. Insects like ticks are agents that transmit some pretty serious infections to the unprotected and unwary. In this video, Joe Alton MD discusses everything you need to know about tick bites: Identification, protection, tick removal, and much more.

To watch, click below:

Wishing you the best of health in good times or  bad,

Joe Alton MD

Joe Alton, MD

Fill those holes in your medical supplies by checking out our entire line of medical kits and supplies at store.doomandbloom.net!

Survival Medicine Hour: Stroke, Ebola 2018, Med Storage, More

Click here to view the original post.

Survival Medicine Hour: Stroke, Ebola 2018, Med Storage, More

SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR PODCAST

Ebola outbreak in Congo

Ebola outbreak in Congo

In 2014, Joe Alton MD began reporting on an outbreak of a little-known disease called Ebola in West Africa. At the time, there were less than 100 cases, but eventually became a major epidemic with 28000 cases and 11000 deaths. Now Ebola has broken out in urban areas in Congo, where it was first identified. With cities of 1 and 11 million in the area, could it become a major epidemic? Find out the latest in developments in Ebola research since the West Africa epidemic in 2014, and is the new vaccine panning out to be protective?

Also, Joe and Amy Alton, ARNP discuss a major challenge in austere settings: stroke, aka cerebro-vascular accident (CVA). Find out how to quickly identify a stroke in progress and what to do to increase the chances of full recovery for the victim.

Plus, a listener asks about the reliability of the medications he has in his vehicle’s medical kit, which spends a lot of time in the hot Texas summer sun. What are the effects on medications and what should be done?

All this and more in the latest Survival Medicine Hour with Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy!

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2018/05/25/survival-medicine-hour-stroke-ebola-2018-med-storage

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

The Altons

The Altons

Follow us on twitter @preppershow

Follow us on Facebook at Doom and Bloom(tm)

Folllow us on YouTube at DrBones NurseAmy Channel

Survival Medicine Hour: Ticks, Volcanoes, Special Guests

Click here to view the original post.

Survival Medicine Hour: Ticks, Volcanoes, Special Guests

SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR PODCAST

Old Faithful is a sign of a mass of superheated water and rock below Yellowstone National Park

Old Faithful is a sign of a mass of superheated water and rock below Yellowstone National Park

Can you prepare for a day at the beach? Can you prepare for an asteroid strike? Well, preparing for volcanic eruptions is in the middle, actually closer to an asteroid strike that anyone would like. Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP discuss what can and can’t be done to prepare for a volcano, and whether volcano preparedness is an oxymoron!


Also, school’s almost out and families will out hiking and camping. Ticks will also be out, and ready to make a meal out of the blood of your loved ones. The Altons discuss how to avoid being a blood donor to a tick this summer, and avoid diseases they transmit like Lyme disease.

All this and more in this episode of the Survival Medicine Hour with Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy!

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2018/05/18/survival-medicine-hour-ticks-volcanoes-interviews-more

Follow us on Twitter @preppershow; on Facebook at the Doom and Bloom(tm) page; on YouTube at the DrBones NurseAmy channel

Also, check out Nurse Amy’s entire line of medical kits and supplies at store.doomandbloom.net!

Joe and Amy Alton

Survival Medicine Hour: Emerging Infectious Diseases, Malaria

Click here to view the original post.

Survival Medicine Hour: Emerging Infectious Diseases, Malaria

SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR PODCAST

e. coli bacteria

e. coli bacteria

Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP often  talk about infectious diseases on the Survival Medicine Hour, a number of which are called emerging infectious diseases.

Emerging infectious diseases are infections that have recently appeared within a population or those whose frequency or geographic range is increasing or likely to increase in the near future. They say there’s nothing new under the sun, so how is this possible? Emerging infections can be caused by:

  • Previously undetected or unknown infectious agents (SARS, MERS)
  • Known agents that have spread to new geographic locations or new populations (Zika, Ebola, Chikungunya)
  • Previously known agents whose role in specific diseases has previously gone unrecognized. (like some viruses now being thought responsible for certain illnesses)
  • Re-emergence of agents whose incidence of disease had significantly declined in the past but whose incidence of disease has reappeared, say measles. This group is known as re-emerging infectious diseases.
Asian Tiger Mosquito

Asian Tiger Mosquito

The World Health Organization warned in its 2007 report that infectious diseases are emerging at a rate that has not been seen before. Since the 1970s, about 40 infectious diseases have been discovered, including SARS, MERS, Ebola, chikungunya, avian flu, swine flu and, most recently, Zika.

More information on emerging infectious disease can be heard on this episode of the Survival Medicine Hour!

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2018/05/11/survival-medicine-hour-emerging-infectious-disease

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

The Altons

The Altons

E. Coli Contamination

Click here to view the original post.

E. Coli Contamination

E. COLI CONTAMINATION

Romaine Lettuce

Romaine Lettuce

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that food poisoning from romaine lettuce harboring the bacteria E. Coli spread recently to 29 states and sent at least 150 people to the hospital. The areas involved include all parts of the country from Florida to North Dakota to California, and new cases are making it the worst E. Coli outbreak nationally since 5 people died and 200 were hospitalized in 2006.

Although E. Coli is a common inhabitant of the intestinal tract, some strains, especially O157:H7,  produce a toxin known as “Shiga” that causes bloody diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, dehydration, and other symptoms. Victims range from 1 to 88 years old, and a number are experiencing kidney failure, which has killed one person so far. Several E. Coli varieties are common causes of urinary tract infections.

E. Coli

E. Coli

Sources of Shiga-toxin producing E. Coli may include:

·       Contaminated water (even swimming in it may cause infection)

·       Undercooked ground beef

·       Unpasteurized milk or juice

·       Cheese made from raw milk

·       Raw fruits, vegetables, and sprouts

·       Contact with animals and their enclosures

·       Feces of those infected

After the organism enters the system, it usually takes several days for symptoms to appear. Unlike many infections, E. Coli tends not to cause high fevers, but the abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting can be severe. Dehydration can cause decreased urine production, dark urine, weakness, and fatigue.

Rehydration is the main treatment

Rehydration is the main treatment

Re-hydration support during the illness will help support the victim for the 6-8 days it takes most to get over the infection. Antibiotics are rarely indicated, as it usually goes away by itself; it is even thought that taking anti-diarrheal medicines may slow the recovery process by preventing the elimination of the organism through bowel movements. Dairy products or items with high fat content or fiber can make your symptoms worse.

If it occurs, kidney damage will begin to become apparent after the first week.

Simply avoiding bagged lettuce at the grocery store is not enough, as many of those made ill ate the lettuce in salads served in restaurants. It is not yet known where in the chain from farm to consumer that the contamination with the bacteria took place. A farm in Yuma, Arizona may be involved.

Prevention involves avoiding poorly prepared food and water.  Use different cutting boards for raw fruits and vegetables than you would for raw meat.  

The most important factor in preventing E. Coli outbreaks is strict diligence applied to washing hands before cooking, after caring for animals and their environments, and diapering infants or otherwise disposing of human waste. 

Eating salads is a healthy option for most, but always be sure to make yours with freshly-washed hands and vegetables.

Joe Alton MD

Dr. Alton

Dr. Alton

Find out more about E. Coli contamination and 150 other medical issues when the ambulance may not be just around the corner! Check out a copy of the award-winning Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the way, available at Amazon or at doomandbloom.net. Also, be sure to find a medical kit that will help keep your people healthy in good times or bad: Check out store.doomandbloom.net

The Third Edition

The Third Edition

Survival Medicine Hour: Causes of Abdominal Pain Off The Grid

Click here to view the original post.

SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR PODCAST

After a disaster or at a remote homestead, we all know that the medic for the family may not have ready access to modern medical technology. That means many conditions that are commonly identified with ultrasounds or CAT scans may be more challenging to diagnose. One of these challenges is abdominal pain. There are various medical issues that cause it, and Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP discuss several common diseases that must be identified and treated, such as appendicitis, gall bladder stones, stomach viruses, and more. These issues have some telltale signs that clue you in on what’s going on.

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2018/05/03/survival-medicine-hour-appendicitis-stomach-flus-gall-bladder-disease-more

Don’t forget to follow Dr.Bones and Nurse Amy on Twitter @preppershow, Facebook at Doom and Bloom, and YouTube at DrBones NurseAmy Channel!

Inflamed Appendix

Inflamed Appendix

Here’s wishing you the best of health in good times and bad…

Joe and Amy Alton

Joe and Amy

Joe and Amy

Find out more about abdominal pain and 150 more medical issues in survival settings with the award-winning Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide For When Medical Help is Not on the Way! And fill those holes in your medical supplies with kits and individual items from Nurse Amy’s store at store.doomandbloom.net

Malaria: Important Things To Know

Click here to view the original post.

MALARIA

World's most dangerous creature?

World’s most dangerous creature?

The world is full of dangerous critters, and we’re lucky not to run into the grand majority of them during our daily lives. Animals that present a threat to humans usually live in habitats that are in the wilderness or the deep ocean, where population densities of people are low and encounters infrequent.

You might consider the Great White Shark to be the most dangerous animal in the world, but you’d be wrong. It’s not the black mamba snake of Africa, nor the cone snail of tropical waters; Indeed, in terms of the sheer number of human deaths, a creature much smaller is involved: The lowly mosquito, which puts Jaws and all the classic creatures from our nightmares to shame.

Mosquitoes, especially those in the Anopheles, Aedes, and Culex families, are responsible for more deaths than any other animal (humans excluded). According to the World Health Organization, mosquito bites are the cause of one million deaths every year. But a mosquito bite is a direct way of getting a disease indirectly; the mosquito itself isn’t the cause, it’s a “vector”, a way-station for a microbe on its way to its eventual host. These organisms are rarely, if ever, fatal to the mosquito they live in, but can be to their eventual host: Warm-blooded animals that the mosquito bites, like humans.

MALARIA

Life Cycle of Malaria

Life Cycle of Malaria

The majority of deaths from infectious diseases transmitted by mosquitoes are caused by a disease known as malaria. It was originally thought that the disease came from foul marsh air, thus came to be known as  “mal aria” or “bad air”.

The World Health Organization believes that 300-500 million cases of malaria occur every year, with 1 million deaths. 1700 cases are reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) annually in the United States, mostly by those traveling outside the country.

Malaria is caused by one of four species of microbe called “plasmodium“, of which p. falciparum seems to be the worst. Plasmodium lives in the gut of mosquitoes. When female mosquitos (only females bite humans) of the anopheles species inject these micro-organisms into a human body, they colonize organs such as the liver. Once there, they travel through your circulation to damage blood cells and other organs.

modern range of malaria organisms

modern range of malaria organisms

Looking at the map of the current range of anopheles mosquitoes, you would think the United States is immune to issues relating to malaria. This is primarily due to the common availability of air conditioning systems, drained swamp areas, and improved health care in modern times. Malaria was thought, however, to be a significant problem, especially in the South, in the 18th and 19th centuries; even today, a remote homestead or a community off the grid due to a major disaster might still be vulnerable to an outbreak.

It should be noted that, besides anopheles, other species of mosquitoes carry micro-organisms that invade and cause damage to organs. One instance that created a sensation recently was the aedes mosquito that transmitted Zika virus to the brains of fetuses in Brazil in a 2015-16 epidemic.

SYMPTOMS OF MALARIA

Plasmodium organism under the microscope

Plasmodium organism under the microscope

Symptoms of Malaria appear flu-like and present as periodic chills, fever, and sweats.  The classic appearance includes:

High fever (often reaching up to 104° F or more)
Chills
Shaking
Extreme sweating
Fatigue
Discomfort (known as “malaise”), joint, and body aches
Headache
Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea

Some develop jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes due to liver damage.

Although most people begin to experience symptoms 10 days to 4 weeks after infected, it is possible to be without symptoms for up to 1 year after you are infected. Bouts of severe symptoms every two or three days is common.

Some types of malaria can lead to repeat bouts of sickness. The parasites can go dormant in the liver for a period of time after infection. When they become active again, the person gets sick again, known as a “recurrence”.

Over time, the patient becomes anemic as blood cells are lost to the infection. With time, periods between episodes become shorter and permanent organ damage may occur.

DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

Malaria can be treated and controlled

Malaria can be treated and controlled

Diagnosis of malaria cannot be confirmed without a microscope, but anyone experiencing relapsing fevers with severe chills and sweating should be considered candidates for treatment.  The medications used for Malaria include Chloroquine, Quinine, and Quinidine; other, later-generation drugs, are also available.

Sometimes, an antibiotic such as Doxycycline or Clindamycin is used in combination with the above. Physicians are usually sympathetic towards prescribing these medications to those who are contemplating trips to places where mosquitos are rampant, such as tropical climates. These drugs are also available as veterinary equivalents in avian or aquatic form.

MOSQUITO CONTROL

Of course, the fewer mosquitos near your retreat, the less likely you will fall victim to one of these diseases. You can decrease the population of mosquitos in your area and improve the likelihood of preventing illness by:

  • Looking for areas of standing water that could serve as mosquito breeding grounds. Drain all water that you do not depend on for survival.
  • Monitoring the screens on your retreat windows and doors and repairing any holes or defects.
  • Being careful to avoid outside activities at dusk or dawn. This is the time that most mosquitos are most active.
  • Wear long pants and shirts whenever you venture outside.
  • Have a good stockpile of insect repellants. If you are going to use sunscreen, apply it first and then apply the insect repellant.

Some insect repellants are meant to be applied to clothing only, such as Permethrin. DEET, however, is acceptable for exposed skin; those areas not covered with clothing.  DEET is acceptable for pregnant and breastfeeding women when used correctly (and, preferably, at 35% or less concentrations).

Many are reluctant to use chemical repellants, and there are EPA-accepted natural remedies. Plants that contain Citronella may be rubbed on your skin to discourage bites.  Lemon balm has been recommended in the past, but, despite having a fragrance similar to citronella, does not have the same bug-repelling properties.

When you use an essential oil to repel insects, re-apply frequently and feel free to combine oils as needed. Besides Citronella oil, you may consider:

  • Lemon Eucalyptus oil
  • Cinnamon oil
  • Peppermint oil
  • Geranium oil
  • Clove oil
  • Rosemary oil

A large amount of damage can occur to humans as a result of small insects. Knowing how to recognize major insect-borne diseases, along with a program of systematic control of bug populations can decrease the number of people that have to deal with signficiant illnesses.

Joe Alton MD

Joe Alton MD

Joe Alton MD

Lear more about malaria and many other infectious diseases in austere settings by checking out the award-winning Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way. Also, consider becoming more medically prepared with supplies and kits from Nurse Amy’s entire line at store.doomandbloom.net.

Appendicitis Off The Grid

Click here to view the original post.

Appendicitis Off The Grid

Blocked appendix

Blocked appendix

After a disaster or at a remote homestead, the medic may not have ready access to modern medical technology. As such, many conditions that are commonly identified with ultrasounds or CAT scans may be more challenging to diagnose. One of these challenges is abdominal pain. There are various medical issues that cause it, with the classic example of an abdominal emergency being appendicitis. Over 300,000 Americans have their appendix removed every year.

The Appendix

The “vermiform appendix”, as it is formally known, is a hollow tubular organ a few centimeters long and a centimeter wide. It looks like a worm (vermiform means worm-like).  Attached at the entrance to the large intestine (the “cecum”), it resides in the lower right portion of the abdomen in almost all people. Inflammation of the appendix can become a medical emergency quickly; if ignored, it may represent a life-threatening situation.

ASIDE: When the appendix (or any other organ, for that matter) is inflamed, the suffix “-itis” is added; thus, inflammation of the appendix is called “appendicitis”.

What purpose does the appendix serve? Charles Darwin believed it was a left-over from an earlier time, as horses and some other animals have larger ones that help them digest vegetation. Today, it is thought by many that it serves an immune function for fetuses and children. It is also thought to be a reservoir for good gut bacteria. After a bout of, say, dysentery or cholera, it may help repopulate the gastro-intestinal tract with beneficial micro-organisms.

Having said that, there seems to be no major ill effects from having an appendix removed, although some studies suggest a small increase in diseases, such as Crohn’s Disease.

What Happens in Appendicitis

A grossly inflamed appendix

A grossly inflamed appendix

Appendicitis is related to an obstruction of the organ by, usually, calcified feces; it some cases, blockage can be caused by foreign objects, trauma, or even intestinal worms.  How does this lead to a possibly life-threatening situation?

Once blocked, the mucus produced by the appendix is unable to drain into the cecum. The organ swells as a result. Once swollen enough, the ensuing pressure on the appendix walls prevents the circulation necessary to keep tissue alive. The dying tissue causes the appendix to fill with pus and, without treatment, will be either walled-off by the body’s defenses or will burst (a “ruptured appendix”).

Once ruptured, an inflammation of the lining of the entire abdomen called peritonitis occurs. From there, it can progress to an infection throughout the body (sepsis) if untreated. Death may be the final outcome.

How to Identify Appendicitis

Many illnesses will be difficult for the medic to diagnose in austere settings. Although ultrasounds and CAT scans help confirm suspicions, appendicitis can be identified with some reliability based on physical signs and medical history.

Classic signs and symptoms that suggest appendicitis as the cause of abdominal pain include:

  • Pain starting at or around the belly button, usually dull and aching
  • Loss of appetite, followed by nausea and vomiting
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Fever
  • Inability to pass gas
  • Pain evolving to become sharper and migrates to the lower right abdomen

The pain tends to localize to a specific spot one-third of the way from the hip bone to the belly button, an area known as “McBurney’s Point”.

McBurney's Point

McBurney’s Point

Once an appendix has ruptured, the pain becomes general throughout the abdomen in many cases. The belly may appear stiff and swollen, with tenderness on exam, both on pressing down (“guarding”) and when letting go (“rebound tenderness”, often worse).

It should be noted that other symptoms may present in a significant minority of patients. Cramping may occur, with some complaining of painful or otherwise difficult urination. As with any condition, signs and symptoms may vary from person to person.

Mimics of Appendicitis

Causes of abdominal pain by area

Causes of abdominal pain by area

Other conditions may lead you to erroneously suspect appendicitis when, in actuality, something entirely different is going on. Urinary infections, right-sided tubal pregnancies or ovarian cysts, diverticulitis, Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease may mimic an inflamed appendix to one extent or another and must be ruled out. These topics will be discussed in future articles.

Treatment of Appendicitis

Appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal pain treated by surgery today, and the procedure is usually curative. The earlier the surgery is performed, the faster the recovery and the less likely scarring will occur. Below is a video of a (bloodier than usual) open removal of a swollen appendix:

Appendectomy can be performed, using a very small incision, under sedation and local anesthesia off the grid. This procedure is not without difficulty for the inexperienced surgeon, as there is intervening small intestine and other structures that must be moved out of the way to visualize the inflamed area. Of course, patient discomfort is a major obstacle.

Recent studies have explored the possibility of using antibiotics to nip early appendicitis in the bud. The patient should be placed on bedrest and restricted to small amounts of clear liquids as soon as you make the diagnosis.

Intravenous treatment is the preferred way to deliver antibiotics to treat appendicitis, but may not be an option off the grid. In that case, a combination of Ampicillin (veterinary equivalent Fish-Cillin) and either Clindamycin (veterinary equivalent Fish-Cin) or Metronidazole (veterinary equivalent Fish-Zole) might be useful. In cases of Penicillin allergy, Ciprofloxacin (veterinary equivalent Fish-Flox) may be a suitable alternative to Ampicillin.

Look for other common causes of abdominal pain to be examined in future articles.

Joe Alton MD

Dr. Alton

Dr. Alton

Find out more about appendicitis and conditions that mimic it in the Third Edition of the award-winning Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the way, available at Amazon or along with an entire line of medical supplies at store.doomandbloom.net.

The Third Edition

Lyme Disease Part 2

Click here to view the original post.

Lyme Disease Part 2
Cat Ellis “Herbal Prepper Live” Audio player below!

This show picks up where we left off last week in a series on herbs and Lyme disease. We will talk more about various herbs for Lyme, as well as Lyme coinfections. Check out last week’s description (below) for more about this series.

This episode of Herbal Prepper Live part 2 of a series of shows on Lyme disease.

Continue reading Lyme Disease Part 2 at Prepper Broadcasting Network.

Survival Medicine Hour: E. Coli Outbreak, Mudslides, Water Disinfection, More

Click here to view the original post.

SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR #386

MUDSLIDES

MUDSLIDES

Spring has sprung, and snowmelt plus heavy rains may increase the risk of mudslides, aka debris flows, in many areas. Find out more about this dangerous natural phenomenom which is akin to a river of wet concrete, plus some early warning signs that you property is at risk. Joe and Amy, aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy, also discuss a new E. Coli outbreak that is hitting several states across the country but is still mysterious in its origin, plus their recommendations for water disinfection and how it compares to official EPA directives.

bacterial outbreak in 7 states

bacterial outbreak in 7 states

Also, some examples as to when the medic has to make tough decisions in survival settings, like giving medicines to someone who is really sick but claims to have an allergy to the only drug or natural option you’ve got in your medical supplies.

All this and more in the latest Survival Medicine Hour with Joe Alton, MD and Amy Alton, ARNP!

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2018/04/13/survival-medicine-hour-e-coli-outbreak-mudslides-disinfection-more

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

Joe and Amy Alton

Joe and Amy Alton

 

Follow Joe and Amy on twitter @preppershow; Facebook at Doom and Bloom, and on Youtube at drbones nurseamy channel!

Find the award-winning third edition of The Survival Medicine Handbook at Amazon.com

Survival Medicine Hour: Wound Closure in Survival Settings, More

Click here to view the original post.

SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR #382

wound closure

Important factors when deciding to close a wound off the grid

Injuries occur in disaster and other off-grid settings, and some of those break the skin or even go into deeper layers, like subcutaneous fat and muscle. When do you close a wound and when is it wiser to keep it open? Also, if you’re going to close it, what materials should you use and why? Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP, aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy, take you through the decision making process and much more in this episode devoted to wound closure in survival situations.

Suture Training is important, but so is open wound care

Suture Training is important, but so is open wound care

Follow Joe and Amy on Twitter @preppershow, plus their YouTube Channel at drbones nurseamy, and Facebook on their Doom and Bloom(tm) page!

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2018/03/30/survival-medicine-hour-wound-closure-in-survival

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

Amy's garden

Amy’s garden

Fill those holes in your medical supplies with kits and individual supplies at store.doomandbloom.net.

The Survival Medicine Handbook, Third Edition

The Survival Medicine Handbook, Third Edition

 

Survival Medicine Hour: Wound Cleaning, Medical Backpacks, More

Click here to view the original post.

SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR #380

dealing with open wounds

dealing with open wounds

The right equipment is important for anyone to do a job efficiently. You wouldn’t expect a steak knife to cut a tree down better than a saw, or see a hunter have the same success with a catapult as opposed to a rifle. The same goes for the containers you put supplies in, especially one you have to carry with you while bugging out or away from your retreat. The right medical backpack allows you to work effectively as a medic, while giving you the ability to have plenty of materials and minimizing back problems. Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy discuss what goes into choosing a good medical backpack.

A loaded first aid kit with medical supplies for trauma,burns, sprains and strains and other medical issues

Picking the right medic bag

Plus, some basics of wound cleaning off the grid. In normal times, you can pass off a person with a wound to a hospital, but after a disaster, it’s your responsibility to see the wound to full recovery. That means diligent and strict attention to wound cleaning. We talk about some strategies for wound care off the grid that will decrease the risk of wound infections and increase the chances for survival.

All this and more on the Survival Medicine Hour with Joe and Amy Alton!

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2018/03/16/survival-medicine-hour-would-cleaning-medical-backpacks-more

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

Dr Bones/Nurse Amy

Dr Bones/Nurse Amy

Follow us on Twitter @preppershow, Facebook at Doom and Bloom’s page, and YouTube at DrBones NurseAmy channel

Plus, get a copy of the Survival Medicine Handbook’s award-winning Third Edition at Amazon.com

2017 Book Excellence Award Winner in Medicine

2017 Book Excellence Award Winner in Medicine

Video: Amputation in Survival Settings

Click here to view the original post.
Amputation in survival settings

Amputation in survival settings

One of the worst injuries that can occur in a disaster or other off-grid setting is the traumatic amputation. In the Civil War era. amputations on the battlefield or later in the field hospital resulted in 1/4 to 1/2 of the victims succumbing to their wounds. In an EMP attack, we could easily be thrown back to that era medically, and we should consider what can be done for those injured so horrifically.

Joe Alton MD attempts to tackle this delicate subject that others won’t touch in this video, knowing the limitations on the medic and the lack of sterility in most instances. See him explain his thoughts and rationale on what can and can’t be done, and some tips on what to do when confronted with the traumatic amputation.

To watch, click below:

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton MD

Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy

Amy and Joe Alton

Fill those holes in your medical supplies with individual kits and supplies from Nurse Amy’s entire line at store.doomandbloom.net.

three compact first aid kits great for hiking and camping made by Amy Alton of store.doomandbloom.net

Surviving the Flu with Herbs!

Click here to view the original post.

Surviving the Flu with Herbs
Cat Ellis “Herbal Prepper Live” Audio player below!

Need an herbal survival guide for the flu? Herbal Prepper Live has you covered. This week’s show is all about influenza, the H3N2 strain, and herbal remedies for the flu.

This episode covers:

Listen to this broadcast or download “Surviving the Flu with Herbs” in player below!


  • How to recognize the flu
  • How to support healthy immune function necessary for fighting off the flu
  • When to seek out medical care
  • Herbal remedies to make the flu more bearable
  • What to do if medical care is not available

The Real Risks of H3N2

The flu has been all over the news, and for good reason.

Continue reading Surviving the Flu with Herbs! at Prepper Broadcasting Network.

Survival Medicine Hour: Nosebleeds, Pregnancy Complications, Flu Recurrence, More

Click here to view the original post.

 

SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR PODCAST

 

Cauterization with silver nitrate sticks

Cauterization with silver nitrate sticks

You might not think it’s possible, but there are enough different flu viruses circulating this season that you could actually get the flu again before Spring! H3N2 is the most common form around this year, but late season flus like Influenza B could bring you down again before things warm up. Joe and Amy talk about their recovery from a nasty case of the flu and give you some important advice.

Plus, how to deal with nosebleeds with limited supplies. Nosebleeds, also known as epistaxis can occur in young or old, and for a dozen different reasons. Learn all you need to know about this common, but scary, medical problem.

pregnancy complications off the grid

pregnancy complications off the grid

Also, survival settings require your people to be at 100% efficiency, but what happens when people get pregnant? Back pain, nausea and vomiting, and much more can intervene to take out a productive member of your crew. Dr. Alton tells you about some of the issues that might complicate what is usually a normal and natural process.

All this and more in the latest Survival Medicine Hour Podcast with Amy Alton, ARNP and Joe Alton MD!

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2018/02/09/survival-medicine-hour-nosebleeds-flu-recurrences-pregnancy-complications

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

The Altons

The Altons

To learn more about survival medicine, get a copy of the award-winning Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook!

Third Edition

Third Edition

Survival Medicine Hour: The Flu Hits The Hosts, Antibiotic Use, More

Click here to view the original post.
Antibiotics not helpful against the flu

Antibiotics not helpful against the flu

Joe and Amy Alton, aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy, come down with the flu after their successful appearance at the SHOT show in Nevada, just one of 47 states reporting widespread outbreaks of influenza. Find out how hard it is to escape becoming a victim, even if you walk around with hand sanitizer in your pocket all day! Nurse Amy gives her advice for speeding recovery and Dr. Bones talks about the anti-viral drug Tamiflu and how it works to shorten the duration and severity of the illness.

It's good to have antibiotics, even fish versions, in your medical storage, but how to use them wisely in survival?

It’s good to have antibiotics, even fish versions, in your medical storage, but how to use them wisely in survival?

Also, Dr. Alton was the first physician to write about the use of fish and bird antibiotics as a survival tool, but this stuff isn’t candy, and has to be used wisely if at all. Having a supply, however, may avoid the preventable deaths from infected cuts and other minor ailments that could become big trouble in hard times. Some general advice regarding appropriate usage is given, and a useful antibiotic called  metronidazole (Flagyl, Fish-Zole) is spotlighted.

All this and more in the latest Survival Medicine Hour with Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP!

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2018/02/02/survival-medicine-hour-the-flu-hits-the-hosts-wise-antibiotic-use-more

Follow us on Twitter @preppershow, FB at Doom and Bloom(tm), and YouTube at DrBones NurseAmy Channel!

Joe and Amy Alton

Amy and Joe Alton

Amy and Joe Alton

Learn more about respiratory infections, anti-viral drugs, and antibiotics in the award-winning Third Edition of The Survival Medicine Handbook, The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way.

 

Survival Medicine Hour: Sleep Deprivation, Flagyl in Survival, Eye Injuries, Face Masks, More

Click here to view the original post.

Survival Medicine Hour #372

sleep deprivation

sleep deprivation

Sleep deprivation is part and parcel of any post-apocalyptic setting, and you’d better know how to recognize it and deal with the issue in times of trouble. We discuss diagnosis, treatment, and use of natural remedies to help your anxious and depressed people stay work-efficient.

Eye Injuries

Eye Injuries

Plus, eye injury questions from a Survival Podcast listener, and a discussion of how to recognize and treat pneumonia off the grid, and a discussion of the basics of the use of face masks in the survival sick room.

Also, a discussion of the popular antibiotic Metronidazole, also known as Flagyl, and its possible uses as the fish antibiotic Fish-Zole in long-term survival settings.

All this and more in the latest survival medicine hour with Joe and Amy Alton, aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy!

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2018/01/19/survival-medicine-hour

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

The Altons

The Altons

Fill those holes in your medical supplies with kits and individual items from Nurse Amy’s store at store.doomandbloom.net! #1 Top Supplier at SurvivalTop50.com!

Just some of our kits

Just some of our kits

Diseases Caused By Food And Water Contamination

Click here to view the original post.
Even healthy-looking fruit can contain contaminants

Even healthy-looking fruit can contain contaminants

The primary necessity for survival is the availability of air. Once you have air to breathe, water, food, and shelter become the next requirements for your continued existence on the planet; that is, clean water and properly prepared food.

Even in normal times, there are many instances where an outbreak of infectious disease occurs due to water of poor quality. Ingesting food that was incompletely cooked caused the deaths of medieval kings in medieval times and may even have sparked the Ebola epidemic in 2014.

Epidemics caused by organisms that cause severe diarrhea and dehydration have been a part of the human experience since before recorded history. If severe enough, dehydration can cause hypovolemic shock, organ failure, and death. Indeed, during the Civil War, more deaths were attributed to dehydration from infectious diseases than from bullets or shrapnel.

More soldiers died from infectious disease than from bullets or shrapnel in the Civil War

More soldiers died from infectious disease than from bullets or shrapnel in the Civil War

Off the grid, water used for drinking or cooking can be contaminated by anything from floods to a dead opossum upstream from your camp. This can have dire implications for those living where there is no access to large amounts of IV hydration.

Therefore, it stands to reason that the preparation of food and the disinfection of drinking water should be under supervision. In survival, this responsibility should fall to the community medic; it is the medic that will (after the patient, of course) be most impacted by failure to maintain good sanitation.

Many diseases have disastrous intestinal consequences leading to dehydration. They include:

Cholera: Caused by the marine and freshwater bacterium Vibrio cholera, Cholera has been the cause of many deaths in both the distant and recent past. It may, once again, be an issue in the uncertain future.

Cholera toxins produce a rapid onset of diarrhea and vomiting within a few hours to 2 days of infection. Victims often complain of leg cramps. The body water loss with untreated cholera is associated with a sixty per cent death rate. Aggressive efforts to rehydrate the patient, however, drops the death rate to only one per cent. Antibiotic therapy with doxycycline or tetracycline seems to shorten the duration of illness.

This is the bowel movement of someone with Cholera

This is the bowel movement of someone with Cholera

Typhus: A complex of diseases caused by bacteria in the Rickettsia family, Typhus is transmitted by fleas and ticks to humans in unsanitary surroundings, and is mentioned here due to its frequent confusion with “Typh-oid” fever, a disease caused by contaminated, undercooked food.

Although it rarely causes severe diarrhea, Typhus can cause significant dehydration due to high fevers and other flu-like symptoms. Five to nine days after infection, a rash begins on the torso and spreads to the extremities, sparing the face, palm, and soles. Doxycycline is the drug of choice for this disease.

Typhoid: Infection with the bacteria Salmonella typhi is called “Typh-oid fever”, because it is often confused with Typhus. Contamination with Salmonella in food occurs more often than with any other bacteria in the United States.

In Typhoid fever, there is a gradual onset of high fevers over the course of several days. Abdominal pain, intestinal hemorrhage, weakness, headaches, constipation, and bloody diarrhea may occur. A number of people develop a spotty, rose-colored rash. Ciprofloxacin is the antibiotic of choice but most victims improve with rehydration therapy.

Dysentery: An intestinal inflammation in the large intestine that presents with fever, abdominal pain, and severe bloody or watery mucus diarrhea. Symptoms usually begin one to three days after exposure. Dysentery, a major cause of death among Civil War soldiers, is a classic example of a disease that can be prevented with strict hand hygiene after bowel movements.

Shigella

Shigella dysenteriae

The most common form of dysentery in North America and Europe is caused by the bacteria Shigella and is called “bacillary dysentery”.  It is spread through contaminated food and water, and crowded unsanitary conditions. Ciprofloxacin and Sulfa drugs, in conjunction with oral rehydration, are effective therapies.

Another type is caused by an organism you may have read about in science class: the amoeba, a protozoan known as Entamoeba histolytica. Amoebic dysentery is more commonly seen in warmer climates. Metronidazole is the antibiotic of choice.

Traveler’s Diarrhea: An inflammation of the small intestine most commonly caused by the Bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). Most strains of this bacteria are normal inhabitants of the human intestinal tract, but one (E. coli O157:H7) produces a toxin (the “Shiga” toxin) that can cause severe “food poisoning”. The Shiga toxin has even been classified as a bioterror agent.

In this illness, sudden onset of watery diarrhea, often with blood, develops within one to three days of exposure accompanied by fever, gas, and abdominal cramping. Rapid rehydration and treatment with antibiotics such as Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin is helpful. The CDC no longer recommends taking antibiotics in advance of a journey, but does suggest that Pepto-Bismol or Kaopectate (Bismuth Subsalicylate), two tablets four times a day, may decrease the likelihood of Traveler’s Diarrhea.

Campylobacter: The second most common cause of foodborne illness in the U.S. after Salmonella, this bacteria resides in the intestinal tract of chickens and causes sickness when meat is undercooked or improperly processed. It’s thought that a significant percentage of retail poultry products contain colonies of one variety, Campylobacter Jejuni. It is characterized as bloody diarrhea, fever, nausea, and cramping which begins two to five days after exposure. Although controversial, Erythromycin may decrease the duration of illness if taken early.

Trichinosis: Trichinosis is caused by the parasitic roundworm Trichinella in undercooked meat, mostly from domesticated pigs. Trichinosis causes diarrhea and other intestinal symptoms, usually starting one to two days after exposure. Fever, headache, itchiness, muscle pains, and swelling around the eyes occur up to 2 weeks later. Recovery is usually slow, even with treatment with the anti-helminthic (anti-worm) drugs Mebendazole and Albendazole (Albenza).

Giardia Lamblia

Giardia Lamblia

Giardiasis: The most common disease-causing parasite in the world is the protozoa Giardia lamblia. It has even been found in backcountry waters in many national parks in the U.S. Symptoms may present as early as one day after exposure, although it more commonly presents in one to two weeks. Patients complain of watery diarrhea, abdominal cramping, violent (often called “projectile”) vomiting, and gas. Metronidazole is the drug of choice in conjunction with oral rehydration.

There are many other pathogens that can cause life-threatening dehydration if untreated. Although we have mentioned common antibiotic treatments where applicable, most of the above will resolve on their own over time with strict attention to oral (or intravenous) rehydration. Many antibiotics (Cipro is an example) are associated with adverse effects that can be worse than the illness they’re designed to treat, so use judiciously.

It should be noted that some of these illnesses may be mimicked by viruses that are completely unaffected by antibiotics, such as Norovirus. Norovirus has been implicated in many of the outbreaks you read about on cruise ships.

Air, food, water, and shelter is necessary for survival. Bad air, food, water, and shelter leads to the next requirement, and that is medical supplies. Have a good medical kit and know how to use all its components. If you can accomplish this goal, you’ll be an effective medic if things go South.

Joe Alton MD

Joe Alton MD

Joe Alton MD

Find out more about infectious disease and 150 other survival medical topics in the award-winning “Survival Medicine Handbook“, now in its 700-page Third Edition. Plus, fill those holes in your medical supplies with kits and individual items from Nurse Amy’s store at store.doomandbloom.net.

Video: Waters Filters and Storage

Click here to view the original post.

VIDEO: WATER FILTERS AND STORAGE OPTIONS (with Nurse Amy!)

You're mostly made of this

You’re mostly made of this

Humans are made mostly of water, and many survival settings have either a lack of it or questionable quality. Therefore, it’s important that the water you find is safe to drink, but even the clearest  mountain stream may harbor organisms like Giardia and Entamoeba that can cause serious illness. In natural disasters like floods, there’s water everywhere, but almost always highly contaminated.

In this video, Nurse Amy steps in front of the camera to give a review of some water filter and storage options.

To watch, click below:

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Amy and Joe Alton

The Altons

The Altons

Find out more about hydration, dehydration, and disinfection, as well as 150 other medical topics, with the award-winning Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide For When Medical Help Is On The Way!

Why Are Flu Vaccines Sometimes Ineffective?

Click here to view the original post.

Why Are Flu Vaccines Sometimes Ineffective?

flu vaccine

flu vaccine

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are reporting that 36 states are in the midst of widespread influenza outbreaks. It appears that this flu season might be a bad one, but why? And will the usual vaccines be effective in preventing you for getting the flu this winter?

You might think that, okay, I got the vaccine, so I can’t get the flu this winter. You might be surprised to know, however, that the CDC shoots for about 40-60% vaccine effectiveness in preventing the illness, not the 100% you expected. In fact, last year’s vaccine was 42% successful (less against H3N2), on the low end of the CDC’s target, but in 2014-2015, the prevention rate from the flu vaccine was about 19%.

(Note: This is neither an anti-vaccine nor pro-vaccine article. It is simply a discussion as to why influenza vaccines seem to be less effective in preventing disease in recent years.)

Influenza vaccines produced in a particular year are derived from certain proteins found in last year’s virus. The CDC makes a determination about what virus they expect to be dominant in the coming year, and companies base their production on those predictions. If you have the material from last-year’s flu, why are vaccines sometimes so ineffective in achieving their purpose? Mainly because of two concepts we’ll discuss today: Antigenic Drift and Antigenic Shift.

Antigenic Drift: Viruses are notorious for their ability to mutate, but fortunately their mutations rarely make a major change in their genetic makeup. When the changes are so small that the current virus going around is essentially the same as the previous one, it is called antigenic drift. In this circumstance, vaccines are more effective; that is, they reach the CDC goal of 40-60% prevention rate because they are fighting essentially the same virus.

mutations caused Ebola to be transmissible from bats to humans in West Africa

mutations caused Ebola to be transmissible from bats to humans in West Africa

Antigenic Shift: Sometimes, a virus undergoes a major mutation or two viruses combine to make a significant change in the nature of a virus. For example: If the Ebola virus primarily lives in fruit bats in Africa, some mutation along the way made it able to live in human beings. Perhaps another mutation made it more easily passed along to other humans in bodily secretions. These significant changes in the genetic makeup are called antigenic shifts. With antigenic shifts, all bets are off with regards to predicting the success of a vaccine in preventing disease. To take an extreme example, if the Ebola virus mutated to make it easily transmissible via airborne droplets, we’d be in a lot of trouble.

Classifying Influenza Viruses

The dominant virus causing this year’s influenza cases in the H3N2 Type A virus. Influenza viruses are classified according to the proteins that exist on their surface. These are called Hemagglutinins (HA) and Neuraminidases (NA). There are more and more different HA and NA subtypes discovered every year. The Swine flu, for example, is H1 N1.

Why is flu vaccine less effective against influenza A(H3N2) viruses?

The journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences suggests that last year’s vaccine’s ineffectiveness occurred as a result of an antigenic shift in the H3N2 virus. Indeed, the flu vaccine seems to be generally less effective against influenza A(H3N2) that other viruses. Why? This from the CDC:

“While all influenza viruses undergo frequent genetic changes, the changes that have occurred in influenza A(H3N2) viruses have more frequently resulted in differences between the virus components of the flu vaccine and circulating influenza viruses (i.e., antigenic change) compared with influenza A(H1N1) and influenza B viruses. That means that between the time when the composition of the flu vaccine is recommended and the flu vaccine is delivered, H3N2 viruses are more likely than H1N1 or influenza B viruses to have changed in ways that could impact how well the flu vaccine works.”

In other words, H3N2 tends to develop mutations more often and faster than other common influenza viruses.

The CDC goes on to say: “Growth in eggs is part of the production process for most seasonal flu vaccines. While all influenza viruses undergo changes when they are grown in eggs, changes in influenza A(H3N2) viruses tend to be more likely to result in antigenic changes compared with changes in other influenza viruses. These so-called “egg-adapted changes” are present in vaccine viruses recommended for use in vaccine production and may reduce their potential effectiveness against circulating influenza viruses.”

Therefore, the flu vaccine as currently produced is less effective in its purpose than we would like. More research is necessary to produce a vaccine that we can depend on to prevent the disease, and to make it safer for those opting to take it.

Tamiflu

Tamiflu

In the meantime, ask your physician for an anti-viral med (not an antibiotic!) that may decrease the duration and severity of the disease, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza). As these drugs are more effective in the first 48 hours of symptoms, you should have these on hand, just in case your doctor isn’t able to see you quickly. I recently received an official CDC health advisory emphasizing the increased importance this year of these medications due to the issues related to the H3N2 virus. It also stated that early treatment may decrease the risk of hospitalization.

Joe Alton MD

Dr. Alton

Dr. Alton

Find out more about influenza and 150 other medical topics in the award-winning Third Edition of “The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way”

Video: Colds Vs. Flus

Click here to view the original post.

VIDEO: COLDS VS FLUS

Colds vs Flus

Colds vs Flus

Colds and flus have similar symptoms, but there are ways to tell the difference. In his latest video, Joe Alton MD goes through the signs and symptoms that give clues as to which is which, and what you should do to treat and prevent respiratory infections this cold and flu season.

To watch, click below:

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP

Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP

Learn about respiratory infections and 150 other topics in the Alton’s 2017 Book Excellence Award winner in medicine, the Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way!

1st Place at the Book Excellence Awards!

1st Place at the Book Excellence Awards!

Survival Medicine Hour: Cellulitis, Spirituality of and Realities for the Medic, More

Click here to view the original post.

SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR #369

spirituality and survival

spirituality and survival

In this episode of the Survival Medicine Hour, Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP discuss the role of spirituality in survival, and the role hope plays in keeping people resilient in the face of adversity. Also, some hard realities the medic must confront in long-term survival scenarios and the role natural plant products will play in keeping people healthy when the medications run out.

Cellulitis: An epidemic off the grid?

Cellulitis: An epidemic off the grid?

Plus, a discussion of one of the most common issues that will attend injuries in survival settings: cellulitis, or soft tissue infections. People performing activities of daily survival get injured and those injuries can get infected. How do you recognize these infections, and what can you use to treat them?

All this and more in the Doom and Bloom(tm) Survival Medicine Hour with Joe and Amy Alton!

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/12/22/survival-medicine-hour-spirituality-and-survival-cellulitis-medic-realities

 

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad (and a Merry Christmas)!

Have a Corgi Christmas!

Have a Corgi Christmas!

Follow us on Twitter @preppershow; on Facebook @Doom and Bloom(tm);on Youtube’s DrBones NurseAmy channel!

Don’t forget the award-winning Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way, as well as the kits and supplies at Nurse Amy’s store at store.doomandbloom.net.

 

Survival Medicine Hour: Acid Reflux, Colds vs Flus, Medical Barter Items, More

Click here to view the original post.

Survival Medicine Hour #366

Colds vs. Flus

Colds vs. Flus

Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP, aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy, discuss a number of topics, including honey as a treatment for burns, how to tell colds vs. flus, medical barter items, acid reflux, using glues to close wounds, and much more!

Honey, if raw and unprocessed, has antibacterial effect and may be useful to treat burns in situations where modern medical care is not a possibility.

Honey as a treatment for burns

Honey as a treatment for burns

Do you have a cold or the flu? Here’s some tips on how to tell the difference.

Most survivalists consider ammunition to be the most important barter item, but how about items that could heal, instead of cause, wounds? Dr. Alton bets that medical supplies would be important barter items in a post-disaster economy.

Glue in place

Glue in place

Medical glues and even Super-glue, may be valuable items for closing wounds. Here’s how to use glue to close a wound (remember, that it’s more important to know when a wound should be closed and when it should remain open!).

acid reflux

acid reflux

How many people do you know that have problems with stomach acid? In a disaster, those people will still be there, and they need your help. Dr.Alton tells you everything you need to know about gastroesophageal reflux disease (G.E.R.D.).

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/11/30/survival-medicine-hour-acid-reflux-medical-barter-items-colds-vs-flus-more

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

The Altons

The Altons

Follow us on twitter @preppershow, Facebook at Doom and Bloom(tm), and YouTube at DrBones NurseAmy channel.

Fill those holes in your medical supplies with kits and individual items from Nurse Amy’s store at store.doomandbloom.net!

 

 

 

 

Video: Influenza 2017

Click here to view the original post.

Influenza On and Off The Grid Video

respiratory tract and virus

respiratory tract and virus

In this video, Joe Alton MD discuss everything you need to know about influenza on and off the grid. Millions will visit their doctor for treatment, and some mostly elderly, very young, or infirm sufferers may not survive the illness.

Dr. Alton tells you how to identify, treat, and prevent outbreaks of influenza in good times or bad, important knowledge to have to keep your family or survival group healthy this flu season. Companion video to a recent article.

To watch, click below:

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

The Altons

The Altons

A good medical kit is a big factor in surviving a disaster, and you can find some of the best at Nurse Amy’s site at store.doomandbloom.net. Use coupon code THANKS15 for 15% off your items. Offer ends Monday night, Nov. 27, 2017, so act now.

Survival Medicine Hour: Natural Burn Remedies, Ingrown Nails, Lone Wolves

Click here to view the original post.

Survival Medicine Hour Podcast #365

lone wolf

Lone Wolf?

Does the “lone wolf” have an advantage or disadvantage in situations where you’re knocked off the grid and long term survival is not a sure thing? Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP discuss the importance of community in tough times, even if it’s just an extended family.

3rd degree burn

3rd degree burn

Plus, after discussing first and second degree burns last week, Dr. Alton, aka Dr. Bones, tackles third degree burns, a difficult challenge for the survival medic, as well as natural burn remedies that might help speed recovery for some of the injured.

off grid ingrown toenail strategy

off grid ingrown toenail strategy

Lastly, minor conditions like ingrown toenails may not seem like much to those who watch The Walking Dead, but they’re a major impediment to work efficiency. Not being able to take a step without pain isn’t likely to increase your chances for survival. Dr. Alton talks about what can be done to prevent and treat this condition off the grid.

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/11/25/survival-medicine-hour-natural-burn-remedies-ingrown-nails-lone-wolves

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad!

Joe and Amy Alton

The Altons

The Altons

Hey, follow us on twitter @preppershow, YouTube at DrBones NurseAmy channel, and Facebook at Doom and Bloom. And check out the Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook on Amazon!

Third Edition

Third Edition

 

 

 

 

 

Influenza On And Off The Grid

Click here to view the original post.

Influenza On and Off The Grid

influenza

influenza

Even with modern medical technology, few can avoid the occasional respiratory infection. Viral illnesses like colds and flus are common issues even for those who are in prime physical condition. Human illness involves the respiratory tract more commonly than any other organ system. Influenza is particularly contagious as germ-laden droplets are expelled during coughs and sneezes, entering the nose, mouth, or eyes of others.

You can expect influenza viruses to hit your part of the country anywhere from late fall to early spring, and most people weather their illness just fine. Some folks, however, especially the very old, very young, and those with chronic medical conditions, may not survive. Because of this, influenza-related pneumonia has earned the title “the old man’s friend” (because it ends their suffering).

The flu may not be life-threatening in normal times, and you might (foolishly) not take measures to prevent it. Survival scenarios, though, are a different story. 100 years ago, a flu epidemic ran rampant throughout the world, killing 50-100 million people. In a survival setting, we’ll be thrown back medically at least that far back.

Without strict adherence to hand washing and respiratory hygiene, it would be very easy for your entire community to become ill, and the physical stress associated with activities of daily survival might lead a weakened respiratory system to allow secondary infections like pneumonia to cause major trouble. At the very least, influenza can affect work efficiency at a time when everyone must be at one hundred per cent. If you’ve had the flu, you know what I mean.

influenza came lead to pneumonia

influenza came lead to pneumonia

Influenzas are usually caused by Influenza type A (the most common) and Type B viruses. They are classified according to the proteins that exist on their surface. These are called Hemagglutinins (HA) and Neuraminidases (NA). There are more and more different HA and NA subtypes discovered every year. The Swine flu, for example, is H1 N1. The flu this year is thought to be H3N2.

Symptoms of influenza begin anywhere from one to four days after exposure. They  include:

  • High fever
  • Cough
  • Headache
  • Severe fatigue
  • Severe muscle aches

Colds will resolve themselves over a week or so, but influenzas may last longer. The flu could weaken you enough that secondary bacterial infections will set in. Indeed, these secondary infections are the most probable causes of death related to flu cases. If this happens, you’ll notice that you are getting worse, not better, over time despite the usual treatments.

The old man's friend?

The old man’s friend?

These include medications like ibuprofen for muscles aches and fever, decongestants for nasal congestion, expectorants to thin out phlegm, cough suppressants (although they should be used only when there is difficulty breathing or sleeping) and others. As the flu is a viral illness, it’s important to know that antibiotics will be ineffective.

There are, however, a few anti-viral flu medications such as Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or Zanamivir (Relenza). These drugs will shorten the course of the infection if taken in the first 48 hours after symptoms appear. After the first 48 hours, there’s less medicinal effect.

Therefore, you might consider asking your doctor in normal times for a Tamiflu prescription at the beginning of every flu season, since it might be hard to get an appointment on short notice. For a caregiver with a number of flu patients to treat, taking a half dose daily for five days may decrease your chances of catching it.

The CDC recommends the flu vaccine for everyone over 6 months of age, but it’s important to know that the effectiveness of the vaccine may be less in years when the current virus is different from the previous years. Therefore, it’s important to take measures to prevent the flu and to isolate those who are infected from those that are healthy.

face masks may help decrease contagion

face masks may help decrease contagion

Other actions you can take to decrease the chance of getting or spreading the flu are:

  • Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it.
  • If no tissue is available, cough or sneeze into your upper arm, not your hand.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand rub.
  • Clean and disinfect surfaces and objects, like doorknobs, that may be contaminated with germs like the flu.
  • Establish an effective “survival sick room” that will decrease the chances of spread throughout the entire family or group
  • Use face masks when sick or around others who are.
  • Wait 24 hours after the last episode of fever before exposing yourself to others.

The flu may be a bump on the road in your survival journey, but it doesn’t have to be the end of the road.

We’ll talk about natural remedies in the near future.

Joe Alton MD

Joe Alton, MD

Learn more about respiratory infections and 150 other medical issues in the 2017 Book Excellence Award winner in medicine “The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way”. And fill those holes in your medical supplies with kits and individual items from Nurse Amy’s store at store.doomandbloom.net

The Planet Just Dodged a Plague For Now!

Click here to view the original post.

The Planet Just Dodged a Plague For Now!

The Planet Just Dodged a Plague For Now!
Cat Ellis “Herbal Prepper Live” Audio player below!

Pneumonic plague, something most of us have only read about in history books, is back. The plague has popped up in Madagascar with over 1800 confirmed infections. Thankfully, antibiotics have been mostly successful, and looks like it is losing steam. Yay for humankind, right?

Listen to this broadcast or download “The Planet Just Dodged a Plague For Now” in player below!

Continue reading The Planet Just Dodged a Plague For Now! at Prepper Broadcasting |Network.

Ingrown Toenails Off The Grid

Click here to view the original post.

Ingrown Toenails

In the typical zombie apocalypse movie or TV show, you’ll see gunshot wounds and broken bones. Off the grid, however, minor conditions can be a major detriment to the performance of many activities of daily survival. One of these is the ingrown toenail, also known as Onychocryptosis.

You rugged individualists out there might think toenail problems are no big deal, that is, until you have one. When you have to be at 110% efficiency just to survive, you don’t want to be in pain every time you take a step. In the worst scenarios, ingrown nails can cause skin ulcers, blood infections (also called “septicemia”), or even total loss of circulation (“gangrene”).

Your fingernails and toenails are made up of a protein called keratin. It is the substance that forms the claws (and covering of horns and hooves) of animals. When we refer to issues involving nails, we refer to it as “ungual” (from the latin word for claw: unguis).

 

The nail consists of several parts. They include:

The nail plate: this is the hard covering of the end of your finger or toe; what you consider to be the nail.

The nail bed: the skin directly under the nail plate. Made up of dermis and epidermis just like the rest of your skin, the superficial epidermis moves along with the nail plate as it grows. Vertical grooves attach the superficial epidermis to the deep dermis. In older people, the nail plate thins out and you can see the grooves if you look closely. Blood vessels and nerves run through the nail bed.

The nail (or “germinal”) matrix: the portion or root at the base of the nail under the cuticle that produces new cells for the nail plate. You can see a portion of the matrix in the light half-moon (the “lunula”) visible at the base of the nail plate. This determines the shape and thickness of the nail; a curved matrix produces a curved nail, a flat one produces a flat nail.

An ingrown toenail occurs when the edge of the nail grows downward and into the skin of the toe. It can occur for a number of reasons, but poorly fitting shoes and poorly trimmed toenails are the most common causes. The big toe is usually affected, but any toenail can become ingrown.

Symptoms of an Ingrown Toenail

The skin along the edge of a toenail that is ingrown may appear:

  • Red
  • Swollen
  • Painful
  • Warm to the touch

These are signs not only of pressure on the skin, but also the beginning of an infection. If not treated, the condition worsens, possibly even leading to the drainage of pus.

Ingrown Toenails and Your Shoes

Shoes that are either too tight or too loose can cause ingrown toenails. If too loose, it causes continual pounding of your big toe against the inside due to movement within the shoe as you walk. With shoes that are too small for your foot (or even high heels), extra pressure is placed on your toes which prevents normal nail growth.

Improper Trimming

Nails that are not trimmed properly can also cause ingrown toenails. This happens when your toenails are trimmed too short or you cut your toenails in a rounded fashion instead of straight across. Rounded cuts are appropriate for fingernails, but not toenails. The edges of the nails will tend to curl downward and grow right into the skin.

Other Causes

While the above problems can be rectified, some less avoidable factors like heredity, injuries, or medical conditions may also cause ingrown toenails. Some people are born with nails that are curved and naturally tend to curve inward. Injuries to the nail bed can also cause ingrown toenails, especially if it affects the germinal matrix, the living part of the nail that produces new cells.

People with diabetes or other illnesses that cause poor circulation are also at higher risk for these problems. A diabetic, for example, may experience nerve damage and not realize that excessive pressure is being applied to the toes by ill-fitting shoes. They may not even notice that the nail is growing into the skin.

Badly ignored ingrown nail

Badly ignored ingrown nail

Of course, in normal times, there are doctors like podiatrists or orthopedic specialists you should visit to deal with the problem. Off the grid, however, here’s some tips on how to treat an ingrown nail:

  • Soak the foot in warm water with Epsom salts 3 to 4 times a day. In between soaks, keep the toe dry.
  • Use an antiseptic to decrease the bacterial count in the area
  • Place a small piece of moist cotton, waxed dental floss, or other material  under the nail to help it grow away from the skin.
  • Consider wearing sandals until improved.
conservative management of ingrown nail

conservative management of ingrown toenail

Aggressive Treatment

At some point, you may have no choice but to intervene more aggressively. In these circumstances, you may have to remove the offending segment of nail.

Wedge resection of Ingrown Toenail

Wedge resection of Ingrown Toenail

Take the ingrown curved side, about 1/5 of the nail plate width or less. You may have to cut all the way down to the base in some cases. This procedure is more easily done after injecting some numbing medicine into the area, such as lidocaine. Avoid lidocaine with epinephrine; it may compromise the circulation and possibly lead to gangrene. If you have plain lidocaine, consider establishing a “digital block”, seen below:

After Ingrown Toenail Removal

If the toe is infected, antibiotics might be appropriate. Triple antibiotic ointment may be helpful here, but oral antibiotics, such as Keflex (fish-flex), Clindamycin (Fish-Cin) and Amoxicillin (fish-mox forte) may be necessary.  For more information about antibiotics, go here for the first of a 4 part series.

If a portion of the nail is cut off, patience is required as it will take months for the nail to regrow. If you have a genetic tendency toward ingrown toenails, be prepared to deal with recurrences.

Wearing properly-fitted and protective shoes, managing medical conditions, and teaching appropriate foot grooming methods will make sure that the steps on your journey to medical preparedness won’t be painful ones.

For my youtube video on this topic, click below:

Joe Alton MD

Find out more about ingrown toenails and 150 other medical topics when help is not on the way in “The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way”, now in its award-winning Third Edition.

Respiratory Rescue Herbs!

Click here to view the original post.

Respiratory Rescue Herbs
Cat Ellis “Herbal Prepper Live” Audio player below!

On this episode I’m talking about serious remedies for serious respiratory infections. I’ve been horridly sick, and I want to share with you what has worked to get over it, as well as to get some comfort from brutal flu and bronchitis symptoms.

Listen to this broadcast or download “Respiratory Rescue Herbs” in player below!

There is a particularly nasty flu outbreak in my neck of the woods.

Continue reading Respiratory Rescue Herbs! at Prepper Broadcasting |Network.

Survival Medicine Hour: Active Shooters, Respiratory Infections, More

Click here to view the original post.

Survival Medicine Hour: Active Shooters, Respiratory InfectionsCurbing the active shooter

Curbing the active shooterThe shooting at a Texas church came fast upon the Las Vegas shooting and the shooting at a church in Tennessee. it seems like you can’t get away from headlines about some deranged, disgruntled, or politically motivated person out to do harm to innocent people. Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP discuss some common sense tips for average citizens and some advice for our society to prevent becoming soft targets.

Also, Dr. Alton goes through various respiratory infections so that you can identify, treat, and prevent infections. Different infections require different treatments, from the common cold to strep throat to influenza to pneumonia. Plus, how infectious diseases spread from person to person to cause an epidemic.

All this and more on the latest Survival Medicine Hour with Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy.

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/11/09/survival-medicine-hour-influenza-active-shooters-infection-spread

Wishing you the best of health in good time or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

Joe and Amy Alton

Joe and Amy Alton

Learn more about respiratory infections and many more medical topics in our Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Hour: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way.

 

 

 

Video: Using a SteriPen

Click here to view the original post.
the SteriPen

the SteriPen

Learning how to make water safe to drink is important in any backcountry or disaster scenario. One method that is gaining popularity is using an ultraviolet light handheld water purifier. Outdoor activities, like hiking, can make having a portable water purifier a lifesaver. In this video hosted by Amy Alton, ARNP of https://www.doomandbloom.net/ , she demonstrates the item and its use in the backdrop of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

How does it work? Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) uses short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-C) light to kill or inactivate bacteria and parasites by disrupting their DNA, leaving them unable to perform the functions needed to survive.

To watch, click below…

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Amy Alton MD

Amy Alton

Amy Alton

Hey, fill those holes in your medical supplies by checking out Nurse Amy’s entire line of medical kits and supplies at store.doomandbloom.net. You’ll be glad you did.

Award-Winning Survival Medicine Handbook (third edition)

Award-Winning Survival Medicine Handbook (third edition)

Survival Medicine Hour: Plague, Hepatitis, Pain Issues

Click here to view the original post.

SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR #361

Plague Doctor

Plague Doctor

An outbreak of plague in Madagascar has killed 124 people and infected 1200. Although not an uncommon occurrence in the rural areas, this epidemic has hit the larger cities in the island nation, and is the deadlier version called “pneumonic plague“. Pneumonic plague can be cured if found very early but if not, invariably results in death. Dr. Alton tells you all about bubonic, pneumonic, and septicemic plague and what the off-grid medic could do to prevent this terrible infectious disease from running rampant.

ascites

hepatitis damage

Also, inflammation of the liver, called “hepatitis“, is caused by various viruses which are harder to cure than a bacteria like what causes the plague. There are several types of hepatitis, and it’s important to know what to do to avoid becoming a victim of it. Symptoms, diagnosis, and prevention are discussed by our hosts Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP.

Plus, we start a series on pain issues, discussing different types of pain and also the government’s categorization of drugs into “schedules” from 1-5.

All this and more in the latest episode of The Survival Medicine Hour with Joe and Amy Alton!

To Listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/10/27/survival-medicine-hour-plague-hepatitis-pain-issues

Follow us on Twitter @preppershow/Facebook: Doom and Bloom/YouTube: DrBones NurseAmy Channel

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

The Altons

The Altons

Fill those holes in your medical supplies with kits and individual items from Nurse Amy’s entire line at store.doomandbloom.net!

We’re pleased to announce that the Third Edition of The Survival Medicine Handbook has been named the 2017 winner of the Book Excellence Award in Medicine!

Hepatitis in Survival Settings

Click here to view the original post.

BASICS OF HEPATITIS

liver

liver

There are various infectious diseases that may confront the caregiver in off-grid settings. These can affect various organs of the body, one of which is the liver.

Although your skin is the largest organ you have, the liver is the largest organ that resides inside the body. It is located on the right side of your abdomen just under the lowest rib.

The liver is susceptible to damage from drugs and alcohol, as well as inflammation from certain viruses, a condition known as “hepatitis”. If the liver is diseased, it can become enlarged and tender. This compromises its ability to perform functions like helping your body eliminate toxins, digest food, store energy, and more.

There are various types of hepatitis, listed as A, B, C, D, and E. Each has its own characteristics, but many symptoms are similar. Some types are related to poor hygiene, others from poorly prepared food or contaminated water, and some are even transmitted sexually, but all cause liver dysfunction and scarring. Symptoms can range from none at all (but still contagious) to life-threatening, and may include:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • fever
  • Dark-colored urine and pale greyish bowel movements
  • Stomach pain
  • Itching
  • Muscle and joint aches
  • Fatigue
  • General ill feeling (also called “malaise”)
jaundiced eyes

jaundiced eyes

Although sufferers may experience several of the above symptoms, the hallmark of hepatitis is jaundice, a yellowing of skin and eyes that occurs due to an excess of a yellowish substance called “bilirubin” in your system. Bilirubin is formed by the breakdown of old red blood cells in the liver. A healthy liver eliminates bilirubin as part of this process.

jaundiced skin

jaundiced skin(wiki)

HEPATITIS A

Hepatitis A virus is caused by oral-fecal contamination; it can be gotten, for example, by drinking water that has particles from the bowel movements of infected individuals. It’s begins as a flu-like syndrome, then quickly manifests many of the symptoms mentioned above 2 to 6 weeks after exposure. It can also be transmitted sexually.

In survival, failing to properly purify water can cause an epidemic of Hepatitis A. In normal times, a restaurant employee who doesn’t wash his hands after using the bathroom can pass the disease along to customers.

Hepatitis A usually gets better without treatment after a few weeks. Interestingly, children rarely get symptoms, while 80% of adults do. In areas at risk, a vaccine is available.

HEPATITIS B

Hepatitis B can be spread by exposure to infected blood products, semen, and vaginal fluids. Symptoms are usually indistinguishable from Hepatitis A.

ascites from chronic liver disease

ascites from chronic liver disease

Hepatitis B. however, may cause scarring in the liver that leads to a chronic condition known as “cirrhosis”.  In cirrhosis, the functioning cells of the liver are replaced by non-functioning nodules. Cirrhosis may also be caused by long-term alcohol or drug abuse. Besides jaundice, the condition can lead to “ascites”, an accumulation of fluid that causes swelling of the abdomen, swollen legs, and other symptoms.

HEPATITIS C

Hepatitis C can cause acute or chronic infection, and is seen most often in older individuals. It may be contracted by intravenous drug use, transfusion, and unsafe sexual practices. A percentage of these patients will progress to cirrhosis over time and, sometimes, complete liver failure. A vaccine is now actively promoted by the government that may protect infected individuals from future damage.

HEPATITIS D

The hepatitis D virus is unusual because seems to only occur in those with an active Hepatitis B infection. In tandem, the two viruses cause a significant “superinfection”.

HEPATITIS E

Hepatitis E is typically an acute infection that is sometimes associated with eating poorly cooked pork or wild game. It is self-limited, which means that it gets better without treatment after several weeks. Some types of hepatitis E virus are spread by oral-fecal contamination similar to Hepatitis A.

PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF HEPATITIS

Make the patient comfortable by encouraging rest, encouraging rest and hydration, and giving antihistamines like diphenhydramine for itching. There are limitations about can be done in an austere setting regarding this condition. The anti-viral and immune drugs used for this condition will simply be unavailable.

Wash your hands!

Wash your hands!

The austere medic can, however, practice good preventive medicine by encouraging the following policies:

  • Wash hands after using the bathroom and before preparing food
  • Wash dishes with soap in hot water
  • Avoid eating or drinking anything that may not be properly cooked or filtered
  • Make sure children don’t put objects in their mouths
  • Use condoms to avoid sexual transmission
  • Don’t share personal items, if at all possible, like toothbrushes or razors with infected persons

Some natural substances may encourage good liver health and were used in the past to treat those with hepatitis. Avoiding fatty foods and alcohol Increase, taking zinc supplements, and staying hydrated may help.

There is little hard data proving their effectiveness, but they may be your only options in a survival setting. They include:

  • Milk Thistle
  • Artichoke
  • Dandelion
  • Turmeric
  • Licorice
  • Red Clover
  • Green Tea

Although viral diseases are difficult to treat off the grid, a focus on prevention will help make sure your people have the least chance of getting hepatitis.

Joe Alton MD

Dr. Alton

Dr. Alton

Learn more about hepatitis and 150 other medical topics in the 700 page third edition of the 2017 Book Excellence Award winner in medicine, The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way,

7 Serious Infections from Contaminated Food and Water

Click here to view the original post.

7 Serious Infections from Contaminated Food and Water

Just Hanging Out (and I mean just hanging out)

Just Hanging Out (and I mean just hanging out)

 

Recently, I watched a few episodes of “Naked and Afraid“, a series that puts two individuals in extreme environments with few supplies and, for some reason, no clothes. In this program, many of the participants come down with various infections; some of which cause bowel disturbances. Life then becomes, well, even more miserable than walking around for three weeks naked in the jungle.

Epidemics characterized by diarrhea and dehydration have been a part of the human experience since before recorded history. Cholera is an example of one particularly dangerous infection that was epidemic in the past. It and other bacterial diseases, many of which are now rare, may once again become a problem in the uncertain future.

Off the grid, water quality is questionable and may lead to misfortune if not properly purified. Using bad water to cook food in a remote setting can also lead to major problems that manifest as diarrhea, and later, dehydration. When dehydration is not treated, deaths may occur.

typical bacteria

typical bacteria

Many diseases with diarrhea as the main symptom are caused by poor sanitation. These including the following:

Cholera: Caused by CTX, a toxin produced by the marine and freshwater bacterium Vibrio cholera. Cholera toxins produce a rapid onset of diarrhea and vomiting within a few hours to 2 days of infection. This was a major issue in Haiti after the earthquake there several years ago.

The diarrhea caused by cholera looks like water after rice has been cooked in it. In addition, victims complain of nausea, leg cramps, and other symptoms. The body water loss with cholera is so severe that it is associated with a sixty per cent death rate if untreated. Aggressive efforts to rehydrate the patient, however, drops the death rate to only one per cent. Antibiotic therapy with doxycycline or tetracycline seems to shorten the duration of illness.

typhus rash (brittanica.com)

typhus rash (brittanica.com)

Typhoid (and Typhus): Salmonella typhi is a bacterium of the Enterobacteriaceae family that is found in contaminated and undercooked food. The illness it causes is called “typh-oid fever” because it often confused with Typhus.

Typhus is a complex of diseases caused by bacteria in the Rickettsia family that is transmitted, not by contaminated food and water, but by fleas and ticks in unsanitary surroundings. Although it rarely causes severe diarrhea, Typhus can cause severe dehydration due to high fevers and other flu-like symptoms. Five to nine days after infection, a rash begins on the torso and spreads to the extremities, sparing the face, palm, and soles. Doxycycline is the drug of choice for this disease.

Typhoid rash

Typhoid rash (emergencymedicinecases.com)

Contamination with Salmonella in food (leading to typhoid fever) occurs more often than with any other bacteria in the United States, with a major outbreak in turkey meat causing more than 100 hospitalizations in 2011. In Typhoid fever, there is a gradual onset of high fevers over the course of several days. Abdominal pain, intestinal hemorrhage, weakness, headaches, and bloody diarrhea may occur. A number of people develop a spotty, rose-colored rash, hence the confusion with typhus. Ciprofloxacin  is the antibiotic of choice, but most victims improve just with rehydration therapy.

Dysentery: Caused by a number of different pathogens (disease-causing organisms), dysentery is an inflammation of the large intestine that presents with fever, abdominal pain, and severe bloody or watery diarrhea. Symptoms usually begin one to three days after exposure. Dysentery was a major cause of death among Civil War soldiers. It is a classic example of a disease that can be simply prevented with strict hand hygiene after bowel movements.

civil war hospital

civil war hospital

The most common form of dysentery in North America and Europe is caused by the bacteria Shigella and is called “bacillary dysentery”.  It is spread through contaminated food and water in crowded unsanitary conditions. Ciprofloxacin and Sulfa drugs, in conjunction with oral rehydration, are effective therapies.

Another type of dysentery is caused by an organism you may have read about in science class: the amoeba, a protozoan known as Entamoeba histolytica. Amoebic dysentery is more commonly seen in warmer climates. Metronidazole is the antibiotic of choice.

Traveler’s Diarrhea: An inflammation of the small intestine most commonly caused by the Bacterium Escherichia coli, commonly known as E. coli. Most strains of this bacteria are normal inhabitants of the human intestinal tract, but one (E. coli O157:H7) produces a toxin (the “Shiga” toxin) that can cause severe food poisoning. The Shiga toxin is so potentially dangerous that it has been classified as a bioterror agent.

In this illness, sudden onset of watery diarrhea, often with blood, develops within one to three days of exposure accompanied by fever, gas, and abdominal cramping. Rapid rehydration and treatment with antibiotics such as Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin is helpful. The CDC no longer recommends taking antibiotics in advance of a journey, however, but does suggest that Pepto-Bismol or Kaopectate (Bismuth Subsalicylate), two tablets four times a day, may decrease the likelihood of Traveler’s Diarrhea.

Campylobacter: The second most common cause of foodborne illness in the U.S. after Salmonella, this bacterium resides in the intestinal tract of chickens and causes sickness when meat is undercooked or improperly processed. It’s thought that a significant percentage of retail poultry products contain colonies of one particular variety, Campylobacter jejuni. Symptoms include bloody diarrhea, fever, nausea, and cramping which begins two to five days after exposure. Although controversial, Erythromycin may decrease the duration of illness if taken early.

Trichinosis: Trichinosis is Caused by the parasitic roundworm Trichinella in undercooked meat, mostly from domesticated pigs. Trichinosis causes diarrhea and other intestinal symptoms one to two days after exposure. Fever, headache, itchiness, muscle pains, and swelling around the eyes occur as much as 2 weeks later. Recovery is usually slow, even with treatment with the anti-helminthic drugs Mebendazole and Albendazole (Albenza).

beautiful but could harbor giardia

beautiful, but could harbor giardia

Giardiasis: The most common disease-causing parasite in the world is the protozoa Giardia lamblia. It has even been found in backcountry waters in many national parks in the U.S. Symptoms may present as early as one day after exposure, although it more commonly presents in one to two weeks. Patients complain of watery diarrhea, abdominal cramping, violent (often called “projectile”) vomiting, and gas. Metronidazole is the drug of choice in conjunction with oral rehydration.

There are many other pathogens that can cause diarrheal disease and dehydration if untreated. Although we have listed antibiotics in this article (many of which you can read about in this website), most of the above will resolve on their own over time with strict attention to oral (or intravenous) rehydration. Without hydration support, however, the situation may become life-threatening in some cases.

An important point is that some of these illnesses may be mimicked by viruses that are unaffected by antibiotics, such as norovirus, so employ them only when absolutely necessary. The U.S. is in the midst of an epidemic of antibiotic resistance that is partly due to overuse in humans. You might be surprised when I say “partly”; close to 80% of antibiotics in the U.S. are given, not to humans, but to food-producing livestock.

recipients of most antibiotics

recipients of most antibiotics

If you see post-apocalyptic disaster movies, you’ll see a lot of gunfights at the OK corral. Certainly, this may occur in the aftermath of a major catastrophe. The most deaths will occur, however, due to failure to assure that water is clean, food is prepared properly, and human waste is safely disposed. The medic for a survival group must understand this and enforce good sanitary practices. If he/she is successful, the group will have a better chance of staying healthy even in the worst of situations.

Joe Alton MD

Joe Alton MD

Joe Alton MD

 

Find out more about infectious disease and much more with the 700 page Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way. And don’t forget to fill those holes in your medical supplies by checking out Nurse Amy’s entire line of kits and supplies at store.doomandbloom.net.

a small first aid kit with items shown such as a tourniquet, gauze, mini compression dressings, ace, scissors and more

Motorcycle and hiking first aid kit

How to Handle Dental Emergencies In Survival Situations

Click here to view the original post.

Chemists are running out of flu drugs as outbreak worsens

Click here to view the original post.

This is one of the major survival scenarios that preppers have been aware of for a long time. Not only the lack of medications, but the possibility that available medications may not work on new flu viruses. Take precautions, flu can kill you.

7 Antiseptics For Your Medical Kit

Click here to view the original post.

Betadine is a Iodophor-type antiseptic

I’ve often said that, in a major disaster, we may be thrown back to a bygone era where modern medicine is not an option. Indeed, we can expect civil war-era statistics with regards to major abdominal and chest trauma outcomes, but we will still be ahead of our ancestors even if we’re thrown off the grid. That’s because of modern knowledge of antisepsic techniques.

The word antiseptic comes from the greek words anti (against) and septikos (putrid or rotten).  Antiseptics are substances with antimicrobial properties applied to living tissue to reduce the possibility of infection. Antiseptics, it should be noted, are not antibiotics. Antibiotics are meant to destroy bacteria within the body. Antiseptics are also different from disinfectants, which destroy germs found on non-living objects. All of these are important supplies for the survival medic.

Infected wound

We have a number of videos on this website that discuss antibiotics and what your options are in a survival scenario. If you haven’t been here before, use the search engine and you’ll find there are more than you think. We haven’t, however, talked a lot about antiseptics. Let’s discuss the most popular types on the market that might be candidates for your survival medical kit.

Iodophors: Iodophors like Betadine contain iodine, a substance that can also be used to purify water, but is combined with a solubilizing agent, povidone, which makes it, unlike pure iodine, relatively nonirritating and nontoxic to living tissue. Iodophors work against a broad array of microorganisms and don’t need to be heavily diluted. I will admit that I do dilute my Betadine if I use it on open wounds for regular dressing changes.  Iodophors are effective in killing microbes within just a few minutes.

Chlorhexidine

Chlorhexidine Gluconate: This substance, perhaps better known by its brand name “Hibiclens”, is helpful  against many types of germs, although it’s not very effective against fungal infections. It’s relatively long-lasting, however, compared to some other antiseptics. For this reason, Hibiclens is popular as a way to prepare areas for surgery and for healthcare providers to scrub their hands before patient encounters.

Alcohol: Ethyl Alcohol (also called ethanol) is another tried and true antiseptic product. It, along with isopropyl alcohol, kills many different types of microbes and is fact acting and inexpensive. The problem is that alcohol has a drying effect on skin, the oral cavity, and vagina. It has a tendency to inhibit the development of new cells, so use it for an initial wound cleaning but not for regular care.

Benzalkonium Chloride: BZK is a mild antiseptic and is easily tolerated by most people. One of the most popular first aid wipes or sprays, some say that it has a special effect against the rabies virus, but there’s little hard data supporting this claim.

Hydrogen Peroxide: Hydrogen peroxide is used to clean wounds and reacts with blood to form an impressive foam. This is because blood and most cells contain an enzyme called catalase. Catalase reacts with hydrogen peroxide, converting it into oxygen and water. This effect makes it popular for household first aid in common mishaps like abrasions, but not a great candidate for regular dressing changes due to its drying effect on new cells. It can be used as a mouth rinse in the oral cavity, however, making it a candidate for a survival dental kit.

PCMX (Parachlorometaxylenol or chloro-xylenol for short): Available in more brand names than you can count, this substance is effective against most germs. It’s less potent, though, than chlorhexidine and iodophors, although the antiseptic effect lasts longer. PCMX can be irritating, so don’t use it on mucous membranes like the oral cavity and vagina.

Bleach and baking soda added to just-boiled water in the right proportions can make an effective antiseptic solution

Bleach: Bleach can be found as either a sodium hypochlorite (Clorox) solution or can be improvised with calcium hypochlorite granules, also known as “Pool Shock”. Used more as a disinfectant than an antiseptic, bleach in very dilute solutions (0.5% or less) can make Dakin’s solution, a time-honored method to clean wounds. Be sure to watch our recent two-part video on this website that shows you how to make it easily and affordably.

I’m sure you know of more products that can serve as antiseptics for your survival sick room. Armed with these items, your chances of succeeding when everything else fails, at least as a medic, go up exponentially. Be sure to get the supplies and knowledge that will save lives in times of trouble.

Joe Alton MD

Joe Alton MD

Find out more about stopping hemorrhage and 150 other medical topics in the survival mindset with the 700 page Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way. And don’t forget to fill those holes in your medical supplies by checking out Nurse Amy’s entire line of kits and supplies at store.doomandbloom.net!

Video: Making Dakin’s Solution, Part 2

Click here to view the original post.

Video: Making Dakin’s Solution, Pt. 2

Open wounds are prone to infection

In this video (part 2 of 2), Amy Alton ARNP, aka Nurse Amy, demonstrates how to make Dakin’s solution for the care of open wounds, followed by some comments by Joe Alton MD, aka Dr. Bones, on how to vary the strength from full (5% sodium hypochlorite) down to 1/8 strength, how long it last when stored properly, and some other important things to know about this additional tool for the medical woodshed in survival settings.

To watch, click below:

In case you missed it, here’s Part 1 of the video:

Video: Making Dakin’s Solution, Part 1

https://www.doomandbloom.net/video-making-dak…-solution-part-1/

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

The Altons

You can make Dakin’s solution with regular household items, but for medical supplies you can’t make on your own, check out Nurse Amy’s entire line of kits and individual items at store.doomandbloom.net. You’ll be glad you did.

Video: Making Dakin’s Solution, Part 1

Click here to view the original post.

 

Video: Making Dakin’s Solution for Wound Care, pt. 1

open wound care

In this video, Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP take turns in front of the camera to discuss and demonstrate Dakin’s solution, a 100 year old recipe that is still used today by some practitioners as a way to treat and prevent infections in open wounds. Dakin’s solution is simple to make with affordable ingredients and is a useful tool in the medical woodshed for those that are off the grid due to a disaster or remote location. Part 1 of 2.

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

 

Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP

You can make Dakin’s solution on your own, but when you need medical kits or commercially-made individual items, check out Nurse Amy’s entire line of supplies at store.doomandbloom.net. You’ll be glad you did.

Survival Medicine Hour: Bears, UTIs, Kratom for Pain?

Click here to view the original post.

Survival Medicine Hour #348

American Black Bear

In this episode of the Survival Medicine Hour, Joe and Amy Alton, aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy, discuss the controversial non-ban of a natural pain reliever, Kratom, the only non-opiate that seems to give major benefits to many, as evidenced by numerous YouTube testimonials. Also, bears love the summer, and they’d love to stay out of your way. If they don’t, however, it can mean trouble for both you and the bear. Here’s some safety tips from Dr. Alton, whose home in Gatlinburg, Tennessee is home to many a black bear.

Kratom may help with pain

Also, the medic in survival scenarios may have to deal with gunshot wounds, but he/she’s more likely to deal with common infections, like those that affect the urinary tract. Learn how to identify, treat, and prevent UTIs, which can travel to the kidneys, and eventually become life-threatening if not treated.

All this and more on The Survival Medicine Hour with Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP!

To Listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/07/21/survival-medicine-hour-bears-pain-relief-with-kratom-utis

 

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

The Altons

Follow us on twitter @preppershow, Youtube at drbonesnurseamy, and Facebook at Survival Medicine DrBones NurseAmy

Don’t forget to check out Nurse Amy’s entire line of medical kits and supplies at store.doomandbloom.net. You’ll be glad you did.

All About Urinary Tract Infections

Click here to view the original post.

Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary Anatomy

Medics in survival scenarios have to deal with major injuries and serious infections, Sometimes, infections aren’t serious to begin with, but worsen if not treated. Some of these infections involve the urinary tract.

Urine directly from the bladder is generally sterile, but most women have experienced a urinary tract infection (UTI) at one point or another.  The areas most commonly contaminated are the bladder, which holds the urine, and the urethra, the tube that drains the bladder.  Although men can also get bladder infections (called “cystitis”), their urethra is much longer and bacteria are much less likely to reach the bladder.

If untreated, bladder infections may ascend to the kidneys via tubes called ureters, causing an infection known as “pyelonephritis”.  Once in the kidneys, it can make its way to the bloodstream and lead to shock or worse.

Symptoms of UTIs

 

Each type of UTI manifests in more or less specific signs and symptoms, depending on which part of the urinary tract is infected.

Inflammation of the urethra (urethritis) may be caused by E.Coli, Gonorrhea, Herpes, and other bacteria and viruses. Sufferers will feel a burning sensation with urination; males may also have a urethral discharge, while women with certain sexually transmitted infections may notice a foul discharge from the vagina.

Bladder infections are characterized by pelvic pressure, lower abdominal pain, and frequency of urination. Some people may feel an urgent need to go without warning (urgency) but notice that the stream of urine is slow to start (hesitancy). The urine itself may be cloudy or red-tinged with blood and have a strong smell.

Kidney Infections signs include one-sided flank pain with fever

Once the infection reaches the kidney (pyelonephritis), other signs and symptoms will become apparent.  Fever and chills are common, with pain on the flank (the side of your back). Normally, it will be noticeable only on one side by tapping the flank lightly at the level of the lowest rib with the side of a closed first. This will elicit no response in a healthy patient, but someone with an infection will grimace and flinch. Kidney stones may be mistaken for a kidney infection, as they also cause tenderness in this region. They are, however, less likely to cause fever.

Treating a UTI

Treatment revolves around the vigorous administration of fluids.  Lots of water will help flush out the infection by decreasing the concentration of bacteria in the affected organs.  Some feel relief with a heating pad or compress in the area of discomfort.

various antibiotics work to treat UTIs

Antibiotics are another standard of therapy. The following are commonly used for UTIs (brand names and veterinary equivalents in parenthesis):

  • Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim, Septra, Bird-Sulfa, Fish-Sulfa)
  • Amoxicillin (Amoxil, Fish-Mox)
  • Ampicillin (Fish-Cillin)
  • Cephalexin (Keflex, Fish-Flex)
  • Azithromycin (Zithromax, Z-Pak, Aquatic Azithromycin)
  • Doxycycline (Vibramycin, Bird-Biotic)
  • Ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Fish-Flox)

For dosages, days taken, side-effects, and warnings, use the search engine on this website for the particular antibiotic.

To eliminate the pain that occurs with urination in UTIs, stockpile over-the-counter medications like Phenazopyridine (also known as Pyridium, Uristat, Azo, etc.).  Don’t be alarmed if your patient’s urine turns a reddish-orange color; it is an effect of the drug and is only temporary.

Natural Remedies for UTIs

There are a number of natural remedies to treat someone with a urinary infection. Vitamin C supplements, for example, are thought to reduce the concentration of bacteria in the urine.

Others include:

  • Garlic or garlic oil (preferably in capsules).
  • Echinacea extract or tea.
  • Goldenrod tea with vinegar (1 to 2 tablespoons),
  • Uva Ursi (1 tablet).
  • Cranberry tablets (1 to 3 pills).

Take any one of the above remedies three times per day.

Another home remedy is to take one Alka-Seltzer tablet and dissolve it in 2 ounces of warm water. Pour directly over the urethral area.

One more alternative that may be helpful is to perform an external massage over the bladder area with 5 drops of lavender essential oil (mixed with castor oil) for a few minutes. Then, apply a gentle heat source over the area; repeat this 3 to 4 times daily. The combination of lavender/castor oil and warmth may help decrease bladder spasms and pain.

I’m sure you have a tried-and-true strategy of your own. As with many home remedies, however, your experience may vary. In normal times, consult your physician.

Preventing UTIs 

Preventative medicine plays a large role in decreasing the likelihood of urinary tract infections.  Basic hygienic method, such as wiping from front to back after urinating, is important for women.  Also, emptying the bladder right after an episode of sexual intercourse is a wise choice.

Wear cotton undergarments to allow better air circulation in areas that might otherwise encourage bacterial or fungal growth. Adequate fluid intake, especially cranberry juice if available, is also a key to flushing out bacteria and other organisms.  Lastly, never postpone urinating when you feel a strong urge to go.

Off-grid medics may have to deal with gunfights at the OK corral, but it’s how well they handle everyday problems like UTIs that gauges their day-to-day contributions to their community.

Joe Alton, MD

Joe Alton MD

Learn about UTIs and 150 other medical topics in the 700 page Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way.

Video On Pathogens, The Germs That Cause Disease

Click here to view the original post.

Video: Germs That Cause Illness

In this video, Joe Alton, MD, aka Dr. Bones, goes back to the basics to discuss the various types of pathogens (germs that cause disease). Dr. Alton tells you about bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi: their characteristics, differences, and some well-known issues for which each is responsible.

To watch, click below:

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

 

Joe and Amy Alton

Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton, ARNP

Learn more about pathogens and 150 other medical topics in troubled times with a copy of the 700 page Third Edition of The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way. And don’t forget to check out Nurse Amy’s entire line of medical kits at store.doomandbloom.net. You’ll be glad you did.

Survival Medicine Hour: Wound Debridement, Shock Treatment, More

Click here to view the original post.

 

THE SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR #345

Wound Debridement

In this episode of The Survival Medicine Hour, Joe and Amy Alton, aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy, discuss the Wilderness Medical Society’s special edition on combat casualty care guidelines applied to survival settings, where they coincide and where they diverge. Also, some basics on an important part of wound care, wound debridement, the removal of dead skin from a healing open wound. Studies show that antibiotics are important to prevent and treat wound infections, but debriding dead tissue from a wound is important to aid recovery as well.

People in shock lose heat quickly

Also, more on the different types of shock, and what to do if you have to treat someone deteriorating rapidly from some of the various types. All this and more on the latest Survival Medicine Hour with Joe Alton MD, and Amy Alton ARNP!

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/07/07/survival-medicine-hour-shock-wound-debridement-more

 

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

 

Joe and Amy Alton

Nurse Amy and Dr. Bones

Hey, fill those holes in your medical supplies by checking out Nurse Amy’s entire line of kits and individual items at store.doomandbloom.net. You’ll be glad you did. And don’t forget, the 700 page third edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for when Medical Help is Not on the Way is the most comprehensive book you’ll find written on medical care in times of trouble!

Wound Debridement in Survival

Click here to view the original post.

Wound Debridement in Remote Settings

Maggot debridement of open wound

Injuries in remote settings like a wilderness trail or survival homestead pose challenges to the medic not experienced in long-term wound care. Ordinarily, a system exists to evacuate victims of such injuries to modern medical facilities. In situations where that option doesn’t exist for the foreseeable future, however, the average person may be medically responsible from the point of injury to full recovery.

This is a novel (and sobering) thought for most, and the tools needed to provide regular wound care and the medications to prevent and treat infection may not be at hand. For this reason, I have spent years writing articles on the importance of antibiotics as part of a prepared individual’s medical supplies.

Although I’ve written extensively on antibiotics in survival settings, I’ve written less on wound debridement. Originating from the French “desbrider (to unbridle), debridement is the act of removing dead or foreign material in and around a wound.

Debridement was likely first discovered to be a useful medical tool in wartime, where grossly contaminated wounds were common. The horrific wounds incurred in armed conflict seemed to do better if damaged and dead tissue was aggressively removed. This tissue may be on the edges or throughout the injury. It usually appears discolored, often blackish with a foul odor, although it could also appear white.

By removing dead tissue that, by definition, will not heal, you eventually reach a level where live tissue exists. After debridement, the remaining tissue can recover in a cleaner environment or might, in certain circumstances, be a candidate for wound closure.

Why Should You Debride a Wound?

Sharp debridement

Despite the benefits of debridement, some less-trained survival medics might (understandably) be reluctant to intervene. It is important for them, therefore, to understand the detrimental effects of allowing non-viable tissue to remain in an open wound.

The first is lack of exposure. An open wound is best evaluated when all the dead tissue is removed and the amount of viable material is known.

Next is the suppression of the healing process. Tissue that is no longer viable serves as a place for bacteria to grow, especially the nasty ones that cause serious issues like gangrene. These bacteria slow the healing process in open wounds by competing with growing cells for nutrients.

Necrotic (dead) tissue also causes inflammation in nearby tissues and increases the chance of sepsis (a body-wide infection).

Finally, failure to remove non-viable tissue interferes with the ability of live tissue to naturally close an open wound (a process called granulation).

Removal of non-viable tissue by debridement and treatment with antibiotics helps a wound to heal, but either treatment alone does not give you the best chance of avoiding infection, according to studies cited in a recent issue of Wilderness and Environmental Medicine (2017; Vol. 28, #2S).

The above article referenced an evaluation of open fractures, a severe injury found in both wilderness and survival settings. The results seem to show that surgical intervention and antibiotics given within 2 hours is associated with the lowest rate of infection. When antibiotics are given on time but surgery is delayed, higher rates of infection are seen. When surgical intervention occurs on time but antibiotics are delayed, even higher rates are noted, although signs of infection may not appear for three days or so.

Wound Debridement in Survival Settings

There are various ways to debride a wound, but only the following, in my opinion, would be options in a survival scenario:

Sharp Debridement: Using a scalpel and scissors, dead tissue can be quickly removed. Some surgical skill is useful for the best results.

Mechanical Debridement: Aggressive wound irrigation helps remove debris and leads to a cleaner wound, but results aren’t as complete or as rapidly seen as with sharp debridement. Less skill is required, however, to achieve the end result.

Biological Debridement: Maggot therapy. The larvae of the green bottle fly is used to digest dead tissue and bacteria. One way to collect maggots is to place, say, a dead rat or squirrel in a bag with small holes at the bottom and hang it over a plate or pan to collect the maggots that fall out after a few days. More on maggot therapy in a forthcoming article.

Here is a video from “authority guide”‘s YouTube Channel demonstrating the technique of sharp debridement:

Your goal in debriding a wound is to have clear margins of live healthy tissue on all sides. This tissue will bleed somewhat (a sign of life!), but is unlikely to hemorrhage. Moist dressings should then be used to cover the wound and changed regularly.

Debridement takes place at modern facilities in normal times. In survival scenarios, the procedure should take place where there is good lighting (and the bulk of your medical supplies). Having an assistance to help is always a good idea. In the inexperienced, the anatomy of a deeply necrotic wound may be unclear; the medic should have a good textbook on anatomy in their survival library and learn as much as possible before a long-term disaster takes place.

Bottom line: Live tissue heals, dead tissue doesn’t. Debridement allows you to remove the dead material so the live tissue can heal.

Joe Alton MD

Joe Alton, MD

Find out more about long-term wound care in austere settings by getting a copy of our 700 page Third Edition of The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way. Also, fill those holes in your medical supplies by checking out Nurse Amy’s entire line of medical kits and supplies at store.doomandbloom.net.

The Survival medicine handbook Third Edition 2016

The Survival Medicine Handbook 2017 Third Edition

 

 

 

Video: Dental Abscesses

Click here to view the original post.

dental abscess

In this companion video to a recent article, Joe Alton, MD, aka Dr. Bones, discusses the importance of dental preparedness in long-term survival settings. Perhaps you don’t need a dental kit when the power’s out for a few days, but when you’re stuck in primitive conditions and not likely to get out anytime soon, dental supplies are an important part of being an effective medic.

Let’s face it, pain in your mouth can make you miserable, so miserable that your work efficiency suffers as much as you do. One cause of dental discomfort may be a tooth abscess, which is a serious issue that can turn life-threatening. But what if there is no dentist? Learn what a tooth abscess may look and feel like, plus some possible emergency treatment methods during long-term disasters where there is no dental care available. Hosted by Joe Alton, MD of https://www.doomandbloom.net/

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

 

Joe Alton, MD

 

Dakin’s Solution for Wound Care

Click here to view the original post.

Dakin’s Solution

Dakin’s Solution by Century Pharm.

One of the challenges facing the caregiver in austere settings is how to prevent infection in open wounds. After a disaster, people may be forced to perform activities of daily survival to which they are not accustomed. Injuries may occur as a result. Infections will be more likely in areas where hygiene and sanitation are questionable; without advanced medical care, a bad outcome may be the end result.

A simple and affordable method that was used as far back as World War I may be the answer for the medic: Wound care with Dakin’s solution.

Dakin’s solution is the product of the efforts of an English chemist, Henry Drysdale Dakin, and a French surgeon named Alexis Carrel. In their search for a useful antiseptic to save the lives of wounded soldiers during WWI, they used sodium hypochlorite (household bleach) and baking soda to make a solution that had significant protective effect against infection. The chlorine in the solution had a solvent action on dead cells, which prevented the accumulation of bacteria in open wounds.

(As an aside, both sides in the war were also using chlorine in gaseous form as an anti-personnel weapon!)

Today, Dakin’s solution is still considered effective enough to be used after surgery and on chronic wounds, like bedsores, by many practitioners. It’s easily prepared and can be made stronger or milder by varying the amount of bleach used. Use it simply to clean the wound during dressing changes by pouring onto the affected area, or to moisten dressings used in an open wound.

Dakin’s Solution Recipe

pan with lid (image by pixabay)

To make Dakin’s solution, you’ll need just a few items. This recipe is from Ohio State University’s Department of Inpatient Nursing:

  • Unscented household bleach (sodium hypochlorite solution 5.25%, avoid more concentrated versions).
  • Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate)
  • A pan with a lid
  • Sterile measuring cup and spoon (sterilize by boiling)
  • Sterile canning jar and lid

Of course, wash your hands beforehand, just as you would with any medical procedure. Then:

1. Put 4 cups (32 ounces) of water into the pan and cover with the lid.

2. Boil the water for 15 minutes with the lid on.

3. Remove from the heat source.

4. Use the sterile spoon to add ½ teaspoon of baking soda to the water.

5. Add bleach (sodium hypochlorite 5.25%) in the amount needed (see below).

6. Pour into sterile canning jar and close with a sterile lid.

7.  Label and store in a dark place.

The amount of sodium hypochlorite to add:

Full Strength  (0.5%):       95 ml (about 3 oz. or 6 tablespoons)

Half Strength (0.25%):     48 ml (3 tablespoons plus ½ teaspoon)

!/4 Strength   (0.125%):    24 ml (1 tablespoon plus 2 teaspoons)

1/8 Strength  (0.0625%):  12 ml (2 ½ teaspoons)

Note: 3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon = 14.7 ml; 2 tablespoons = 1 US ounce = 29.5 ml

Once canned, it’s been said that Dakin’s solution will remain potent for about 30 days. For survival purposes, however, I would make it as I need it for wounds or maybe have just make just a few jars at a time. Once open, discard the remainder after a day or so. You may also consider Century Pharmaceutical’s buffered version of Dakin’s that is thought to last about a year.

Using Dakin’s Solution on Wounds

dressing an open wound

Pour into wound once daily for mildly infected wounds, twice daily for heavily infected wounds with drainage of pus. Alternatively, moisten (not soak) dressings used inside the wound (not on top of the skin) with a mild strength solution and observe progress. I would prefer using it as a cleanser as opposed to a regular component of a wet dressing. Some studies show that use in this manner may be injurious to developing cells. Having said that, if you’re dealing with a severe infection (as opposed to preventing one), it may be reasonable to incorporate Dakin’s into the dressing.

Dakin’s solution can be used as a mouthwash for infections inside the oral cavity, but must never be swallowed. Swish for about a minute before spitting it out no more than twice a week.

Full strength may irritate skin, so consider protecting skin edges with petroleum jelly or other skin protectant/moisture barrier. Look for evidence of skin rashes, burning, itching, hives, or blisters. If irritation occurs, drop down to a milder strength or discontinue. Do not use in those allergic to Chlorine.

It should be noted that not all practitioners agree about the benefits of Dakin’s solution. Certainly, there may be other options with regards to regular wound care, including sterile normal saline and sterilized tap water. Antibiotics also play an important role in treating infected wounds, and a good supply is important for any medic in a remote setting. However, Dakin’s is well tolerated by patients and is simple to make with affordable ingredients. It’s another tool in the medical woodshed for scenarios where modern medical help is not on the way.

Joe Alton MD

Joe Alton MD

Learn about wound infections and 150 more medical topic in remote or disaster settings by getting a copy of our 700 page third edition of The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way.

Survival Medicine Hour: Dental Abscess, Local Anesthetic, Pathogens

Click here to view the original post.

Survival Medicine Hour #243

Dental Abscess

In this episode of the Survival Medicine Hour, Joe and Amy Alton discuss the alternative to lidocaine for local anesthesia: injectable Benadryl (diphenhydramine). The pros and cons and its potential use in survival scenarios are explored. Also, dental issues will be a major problem for the medic in any long-term event; Dr. Bones talks about tooth abscesses and how they might be life-threatening if ignored in off-grid settings.

Injectable Benadryl (diphenhydramine)

Lastly, a discussion of the different pathogens that cause disease with Nurse Amy and Dr. Bones. All this and more on the Survival Medicine Hour with Joe and Amy Alton!

 

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad!

Joe and Amy Alton

Joe and Amy Alton

follow us on twitter @preppershow

follow us on facebook@survivalmedicine drbones nurseamy

follow us on YouTube drbones nurseamy

The Tooth Abscess in Austere Settings

Click here to view the original post.

Tooth Abscess in Austere Settings

dental extractor

Many readers of our Survival Medicine Handbook are surprised to find entire chapters devoted to the treatment of dental problems. Visitors to our store are likewise surprised to find dental supplies in some of our medical kits. Why is it important for the survival medic to be “dentally” prepared as well as medically prepared?

A standard first aid kit will usually suffice for most short-term disasters. When you’re talking about a long-term survival setting, however, you’ll need a more varied set of supplies. Dental issues probably won’t be of major concern if the power’s out for a few days; if you’re off the grid for a few months or longer, though, dental care will become an important part of your role as survival medic.

The effects of dental disease can be severe, and, at the very least, impacts negatively on work efficiency. Have you ever gone to work with a toothache? It’s fair to say you probably weren’t at 100% efficiency, which is where you need your people to be if you’re off the grid long-term.

tooth abscess

 

There are many dental problems, but today we’ll talk about a potentially life-threatening one: Tooth abscesses. In long-term survival, problems maintaining good dental hygiene will make tooth abscesses a challenge for every medic.

A tooth abscess is a collection of pus that’s caused by a bacterial infection. Pus is comprised of dead and live bacteria, white blood cells, and debris.

Most abscesses are related to tooth decay, poor hygiene, dental trauma, gingivitis (gum infections) or problems related to previous dental work. The abscess can occur in different areas, either at the tip of the root (periapical), or in the gum next to a tooth root (periodontal). Periapical abscesses are more common, although both can occur together.

An abscess first forms when bacteria enter through a defect in enamel, the tooth’s armor; a cavity or a chipped tooth is usually where it begins. The bacteria spread all the way down to the root, causing damage to the nerve, which causes pain. Once the nerve is dead, pain in the tooth might cease, but significant painful swelling, inflammation, and accumulation of pus can develop at the base of the root or in nearby gums, soft tissue, and even bone. Left untreated, the bacteria may enter the bloodstream, causing a life-threatening infection called “septicemia“.

tooth abscess (wiki)

It’s important for the medic to be able to recognize an abscess when it forms. It is commonly seen as a swelling in the tissue at the base of the tooth. It may have a pimple-like head. Other signs and symptoms include:

  • Severe throbbing toothache, sometimes spreading to the jaw or ear
  • Sensitivity of the tooth to hot and cold
  • Sensitivity when biting down on food or gnashing teeth together
  • Red, swollen gums
  • Fever
  • Facial swelling on the side of the diseased gum/tooth
  • Tender, swollen lymph nodes under the jaw or in the neck
  • Foul smelling breath

Without modern diagnostic imaging, it may be difficult to tell the difference between a periapical abscess and a periodontal abscess. There are, however, low tech ways to tell the difference: In periodontal abscesses, the swelling usually comes before the pain; in periapical abscesses, the pain often comes before the swelling.

Tapping on the tooth may also give you a hint: If you tap vertically on the tooth and elicit pain, it’s probably periapical. If you tap laterally and get pain, it’s generally periodontal. If the tooth has no obvious crack or decay, it’s probably periodontal. Sensitivity of the tooth to hot and cold may point to a periapical abscess.

The differences between the types of abscesses matter in modern dentistry: An abscess mainly in the gum, for example, might have a relatively healthy tooth nearby which could be saved via root canal surgery or other modern procedures. In survival, however, this is not an option, so extraction of the tooth to eliminate the pain and infection is likely to be the end result. Extraction will be the answer, in my opinion, for the majority of dental emergencies in grid-down scenarios.

Although drainage usually occurs via the tooth socket after an extraction, an incision with a sterile scalpel may be needed to drain the entirety of the abscess. This procedure is called “incision and drainage“ or “I & D“. Thorough flushing of the area with warm salt water or hydrogen peroxide (called “irrigation“) afterwards is helpful. Give pain meds and apply warm moist compresses.

antibiotics are useful to prevent infection

Although extraction, drainage, and irrigation may be all that’s required, it is prudent to begin a course of antibiotics, especially for those with fevers or facial swelling. Options include penicillin (Fish-Pen), amoxicillin (Fish-Mox), clindamycin (Fish-Cin) and/or metronidazole (Fish-Zole). A course of treatment should last 5-7 days. Dosing for each of the above antibiotics can be found in various articles at doomandbloom.net.

Medical preparedness for long-term events involves having dental supplies and some knowledge of dental anatomy. If you believe a major event is coming, consider a good dental kit to go along with the rest of your medical storage.

Some of the supplies in our dental kit

Joe Alton

 

 

Video: Using Plants for Natural Mosquito Control

Click here to view the original post.

Video: Natural Mosquito Control

mosquitoes can be vectors of various diseases

Summer is upon us, and mosquitoes are part and parcel of warm weather just about everywhere. Of course, you can use DEET or other chemicals to ward off bites and the diseases that can be transmitted by them, but you could put together a garden as well that would repel the nasty critters. Nurse Amy Alton takes a turn in front of the camera this time to talk about some plants that you might consider for your garden that will repel mosquitoes. Preventing diseases like Malaria, Zika, Chikungunya, West Nile, and others is a great way for a homestead medic to avoid problems in good times or bad!

To watch, click below:

Wishing you the best of health in normal and not-so-normal times.

Amy Alton, ARNP

Amy Alton ARNP

 

Find out more about medical issues on remote homesteads or other off-grid settings in our 700 page Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way, available at Amazon; and don’t forget to fill those holes in your medical storage by checking out Nurse Amy’s entire line of kits and supplies at store.doomandbloom.net…

Fighting Infections with Herbs

Click here to view the original post.

Fighting Infections with Herbs Cat Ellis “Herbal Prepper Live” Audio in player below! During last “Ask Cat” episode, we had a question regarding infections of the blood. It has been a while since I did a show just on infections, so that’s what this week’s show is all about. Bacterial infections are getting more difficult … Continue reading Fighting Infections with Herbs

The post Fighting Infections with Herbs appeared first on Prepper Broadcasting |Network.

Survival Medicine Hour: Eye Issues, Fractures, TENS units

Click here to view the original post.

THE SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR: EYE ISSUES, FRACTURES, TENS UNITS

Pink Eye, aka Conjunctivitis

In this episode of the Survival Medicine Hour, Joe Alton, MD and Amy Alton, ARNP, aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy, discuss how to deal with various eye issues that can confront a medic in an off-grid survival setting, like Pink Eye, foreign objects, styes, and more. Plus, our hosts impart some basics on how to deal with broken bones.

Ouch!

Dr. Bones also answers a question from Jack Spirko’s Survival Podcast Expert Council, of which he’s a member, regarding the potential for use in survival scenarios of TENS units. TENS units are battery-powered items that deliver electrical stimulation to muscles and nerves to help with pain relief.

All this and more in the latest Survival Medicine Hour! To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/05/19/survival-medicine-hour-eye-issues-fractures-tens-units

Hey, do ol’ Dr. Bones a big favor and follow us on twitter @preppershow, YouTube at DrBones NurseAmy, and Facebook at Doom and Bloom(tm). You can also join our Facebook group at Survival Medicine DrBones NurseAmy!

Joe and Amy Alton

Joe and Amy Alton

Find out more about survival eye issues, fractures, and much more in the 700 page Third Edition of The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way, available at Amazon. Also, check out Nurse Amy’s entire line of kits and individual supplies for the survival medic at store.doomandbloom.net!

Video: Azithromycin as Survival Antibiotic

Click here to view the original post.

veterinary equivalents for Azithromycin

One of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics is Azithromycin, known in the U.S. as Z-Pak, is now in a new veterinary version known as Bird-Zithro. In survival situations where you’re off grid and there no modern medical care for the foreseeable future, the medic for the family must stockpile medical supplies, and this includes antibiotics.

See how Azithromycin in the form of “Bird-Zithro” might fit into you survival plans to treat your, well, sick birds. Uses, dosages, precautions, and more are more are discussed in this video by medical preparedness writer Joe Alton, MD.

To watch, click below:

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

 

Joe Alton MD aka “Dr. Bones”

Joe Alton MD

 

Hey, learn more about Azithromycin, survival antibiotics, and 150 other medical issues in the Third Edition of The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way, available on this website and at Amazon.com. Also, check out Nurse Amy’s entire line of medical kits and supplies at store.doomandbloom.net. You’ll be glad you did.

Survival Medicine Hour: Ticks and Lyme Disease, Foot Fungus, Rodent Proofing

Click here to view the original post.

THE SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR PODCAST #231

Tinea Pedis, aka Athlete’s Foot

In this episode of the Survival Medicine Hour, Joe Alton,MD and Amy Alton,ARNP discuss what’s behind the increasing population of ticks and the record number of Lyme Disease cases being reported in the United States, plus how to avoid tick bites and recognize and treat Lyme Disease early. Also, how to deal with fungal infections like Athlete’s foot with conventional and natural remedies in austere or remote settings.

Tick Bite

Rats!!! Rats and mice in your retreat will contaminate your survival food stores and transmit disease and otherwise lower your chances of survival in times of trouble. Find out how to rodent-proof a retreat with Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy.

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/05/05/survival-medicine-hour-lyme-disease-foot-fungus-rodent-proofing

 

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP

Don’t forget to check out store.doomandbloom.net to fill those holes in your survival medical supplies! Also, The Survival Medicine Handbook is celebrating several years on the Amazon bestseller list in disaster relief, safety/first aid, and survival skills! Check it out at Amazon.com.

 

An “UpTick” in Lyme Disease

Click here to view the original post.

Deer Tick Bites and Lyme Disease

deer blacklegged tick

Blacklegged or Deer Tick

Whether you’re a hiker, camper, or survivalist, you’ll be spending a lot of time in the Great Outdoors.  During your off-grid adventures, you’ll be exposed to all sorts of critters that want a piece of you (watch an episode of “Naked and Afraid” to see what I mean). One of these is the lowly tick.

Ticks are eight-legged spider-like “arachnids” that exist in various species throughout the United States. They latch onto the skin of a host for a meal of blood and transmit various disease-causing microbes (“pathogens”) to humans and animals through infected saliva.

These diseases include:

  • Lyme Disease (also called “Lyme Borreliosis”)
  • Babesiosis
  • Anaplasmosis
  • Tularemia
  • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  • Ehrlichosis
  • Relapsing Fever

In this article, we’ll concentrate on Lyme Disease. Lyme Disease is caused by the corkscrew-shaped bacterium known as Borrelia burgdorferi, commonly transmitted by the tiny blacklegged tick, also known as the deer tick.

borrelia bacteria

Borrelia Burgdorferi

Experts are expecting more cases of Lyme Disease due to recent mild winters and bumper acorn crops, which have increased the populations of animals that ticks like to feed upon. These include mice, a favorite of baby ticks, and deer, popular targets for adults. Because of the abundance of host animals, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are estimating 300,000 cases of Lyme Disease this year, which is three times the number reported 20 years ago.

In case you’re wondering, Lyme disease has nothing to do with limes. It was first diagnosed in the town of Old Lyme, Connecticut in 1975. Since then, Lyme has become the most common tick-borne illness in the Northern Hemisphere.

tick stages

Deep Ticks in various stages of development

HOW TICKS SPREAD LYME DISEASE

Ticks have a life cycle that can last two-three years and includes egg, larva, juvenile (also called “nymph”), and adult stages. For a larva to develop into a nymph or for a nymph to develop into an adult, a blood meal in needed. It appears that the nymphs cause the most cases of Lyme. The CDC estimates that about 30% carry the disease in the Northeast and Upper Midwest.

To pass along Borrelia burgdorferi to an animal or human, ticks must first find their hosts. They do this in a number of ways: By detecting smells, sensing body heat, or feeling vibrations with movement. Usually, they hang on grasses and bushes, holding on with their back pairs of legs and latching onto passersby with their front pair(s). When the tick finds a favorable place to feed, its mouth parts pierce the skin and start extracting blood.

how to remove a tick

Tick Removal

A thorough examination of the entire body for ticks is warranted within two hours of returning after a day outdoors. This is most easily accomplished during a shower. Look behind the knees, in armpits, behind the ears, even the belly button.

If the tick is found, it may be possible to just brush it off. If that doesn’t work, a number of commercial products are available to remove it. It is reasonable, however, to simply use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp it as close to the skin’s surface as possible, and pull straight upward in an even manner. Twisting or jerking as you pull may cause the mouth parts to remain in the skin.

Thoroughly clean the wound area with isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol and apply antibiotic ointment. Wash hands afterwards. As an added precaution, launder clothing in hot water and dry in high heat. If all this is done soon after the bite occurs, infection is highly unlikely.

DETECTION OF EARLY LYME DISEASE

Sometimes, however, the bite goes unnoticed. Once bacteria are passed to the host by the tick (a process that often requires 24-48 hours), symptoms can become apparent anywhere from 3 days to a month afterwards. You will usually see the following: :

  • Rash
  • Fever and chills
  • Muscle aches
  • Fatigue
  • Joint pain
ticklymerash

Tick feeding

In 70 per cent of patients, the rash occurs before the fever and starts as redness in the area of the bite. It often then develops into a red circular “bull’s-eye” that feels warm to the touch. Usually, very little pain or itching is associated. This pattern, which spreads over time, is called “erythema migrans” and may be enough to confirm the diagnosis. Lyme Disease, however, may be missed or misdiagnosed if symptoms are mild or, especially, if the tick bite was missed by the examiner.

 

erythema migrans bulls eye pattern

erythema migrans

 

When a bite from a blacklegged tick is newly identified, preventative antibiotics may prevent Lyme Disease. A single dose of two 100 mg. doxycycline (Bird-Biotic) may suffice.

For early infection, as evidenced by the presence of erythema migrans, rapid treatment usually results in a cure. Symptoms, however, may last for a time after treatment.

Doxycycline (veterinary equivalent; Bird-Biotic) 100 mg. twice a day for 14-28 days is indicated, or in children (must be over 8 years old) 4mg/kg twice a day for 14-28 days (max of 100 mg.) Avoid doxycycline in pregnant or breastfeeding women.

Alternatively, Amoxicillin (veterinary equivalent: Fish-Mox) can be used in pregnant or breastfeeding women at dosages of 500 mg 3x/day for 14-28 days. 50 mg/kg is the dose for children younger than eight years of age (maximum 500mg 3x/day). Azithromycin (Bird Zithro) has been mentioned as a second alternative and can be used in those allergic to Penicillin-family drugs.

LATE STAGE OR CHRONIC LYME DISEASE

Late stage infections with Borrelia burgdorferi result in a more diverse set of Lyme symptoms, some quite different from those seen early. These may occur months after the tick bite and include:

  • Neck pain and stiffness
  • Severe headaches
  • Multiple rashes away from the site of the bite
  • Joint pain and swelling in knees and other large joints
  • Bell’s palsy (nerve damage that causes drooping on one side of the face)
  • Heart problems such as irregular heartbeats
  • Dizziness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Inflammation of the spinal cord (called “meningitis”)
  • Shooting pains, numbness, or tingling in the hands, feet, or face
  • Memory loss

Many of the above symptoms may persist for long periods. As of yet, there is not a proven cure for chronic or late stage Lyme disease, but a vaccine is now in development. We’ll discuss  some strategies are to deal with this debilitating condition in a future article.

Boots1

Don’t forget the high-tops!

PREVENTING LYME DISEASE

An ounce of prevention is, they say, worth a pound of cure, and this old saying is particularly relevant when it comes to infections caused by tick bites. For prevention, consider:

  • Long pants and sleeves on the trail
  • Thick socks and high-top boots (tuck your pants into them)
  • Walking in the center of trails
  • Using insect repellants like DEET (20% or greater) on skin (oil of citronella or lemon eucalyptus are natural alternatives)
  • Applying Permethrin 0.5% insecticide to clothing, hats, shoes, and camping gear 24-48 hours before using (proper application will even withstand laundering)
  • Thorough exams after a day outdoors; pay special attention to children and dogs
permethrin clothing

0.5% Permethrin for clothing

Paying close attention to the little things, especially ticks, will make sure that your outdoor activities are healthy and memorable (in a good way).

Joe Alton, MD

AuthorJoe

Dr. Alton

Video: Rodent-Proofing A Shelter

Click here to view the original post.
rodents

heckuva rodent infestation

Sanitation is an important factor in staying healthy in rural homesteads and survival scenarios, and one formidable obstacle for the survival medic is the presence of rodents like rats and mice. When these animals are introduced into new areas, they cause a significant amount of environmental and economic damage. Whether in good times or bad, It makes sense to take measures to prevent rodent infestation in the home and to eliminate those already there.   In this video, Joe Alton, MD discusses rodents and how to prevent them from being unwanted guests in your home, shelter, or retreat.

To watch, click below:

Wish you the best of health in good times or bad,

 

Joe and Amy Alton

 

JoeAmyLabcoatSMALL300x300

Joe Alton MD        Amy Alton ARNP

 

Find out more about rodents, the disease they cause, and 150 other medical topics in grid-down settings by checking out our Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way, available at Amazon. Also, fill those holes in your medical supplies with Nurse Amy’s entire line of kits and individual items at store.doomandbloom.net. You’ll be glad you did.

Survival Medicine Hour: Black Scout, Pt. 2, Azithromycin, Sick Room Set-Ups

Click here to view the original post.
TentMEDIUM

Setting up a sick room

In this episode of The Survival Medicine Hour with Joe Alton, MD and Amy Alton, ARNP (aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy), we welcome back Jack of Black Scout Survival’s popular YouTube channel, who discusses a wide range of topics in part 2 of his interview with Amy.

Plus, Joe Alton, MD examines Azithromycin as a survival antibiotic. Thomas Labs has released a new bird drug, Bird-Zithro. Is Bird-Zithro a possible candidate for treating sick birds in your aviary after a disaster? Find out all you need to know about this important drug.

bird zithro 30 count azithromycin

Azithromycin for sick birds

Lastly, when an infectious disease epidemic comes to your town, would you be able to set up an effective sick room that will help the infected recover while keeping the healthy from getting sick? Joe and Amy go over what factors will make for an effective area to deal with infectious disease off the grid.

All this and more on The Survival Medicine Hour with Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy. To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/04/21/survival-medicine-hour-black-scout-pt-2-azithromycin-sick-rooms

Follow us on Twitter @preppershow                YouTube: DrBones NurseAmy Channel                  Facebook: Doom and Bloom

 

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

 

Joe and Amy Alton

AmyandJoePodcast400x200

Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy

Don’t forget to get a copy of the new 700 page third edition of The Survival Medicine Handbook: The essential guide for when medical help is not on the way, available at Amazon or at www.doomandbloom.net

Video: Sulfa Drugs in Survival

Click here to view the original post.
shutterstock_89589424

Add medicines to your medical kit

Without antibiotics in your medical kit, there will be deaths in survival scenarios that could have been prevented. Using certain veterinary equivalents may be an answer as to how to obtain them. This video discusses the family of antibiotics known as “Sulfonamides”: How they work, What they’re good for, How to use them wisely, and more. Remember that antibiotics aren’t candy, and should be used only when absolutely necessary. We’re in the midst of an epidemic of antibiotic resistance in this country (mostly due to their use in livestock!). Companion video to a recent article.

 

To watch the video, click below:

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

 

Joe and Amy Alton

JoeAmyLabcoatSMALL300x300

The Altons

Hey, get supplies for your medical kit, plus a copy of the latest edition of The Survival Medicine Handbook (also available at amazon), at Nurse Amy’s store on this website!

 

(slider image for this article courtesy of pixabay.com)

Setting Up A Survival Sick Room

Click here to view the original post.
medicaltent

A hospital tent

In normal times, we have the luxury of modern medical facilities that can isolate a sick patient from healthy people. In a survival scenario, however, most organized medical care will no longer exist, placing the average citizen into the position of medic for his/her family or community.  

Although we may be thrown back to the 19th century medically by a disaster, we have the benefit of knowing about infections and hygiene.  The knowledge of how contagious diseases are spread and how to sterilize supplies give us a major advantage over medical personnel of bygone eras.

Using this knowledge, it should be possible for a medically prepared person to put together a “sick room” or “hospital tent” that will minimize the chance of infectious disease running rampant through the community. The cornerstone of care is to deal effectively and humanely with the sick while keeping the healthy from becoming infected.

In the face of a looming catastrophe, you must first make the decision to either stay in place or get out of Dodge. If you’re staying in place, choose a room where the sick will be cared for. That room should be separate from common areas, like the kitchen. It must have good ventilation and light, and preferably, a door or other physical barrier to the rest of the retreat.

If the wiser choice is to leave the area, shelter is an issue that may be addressed with, for example, tents. Choose a tent as the sick room and place it on the periphery of the camp. Again, good ventilation is important to allow air circulation.

With sick rooms in a retreat or camp, it is important to designate them before a disaster occurs. For groups where a number of people are living together, procrastinating will cause someone to lose their room or tent for “the greater good”. This invariably breeds resentment at a time when everyone needs to pull together.

Sometimes, you may find that there isn’t a spare room or tent to assign as a sick room. If you only have a common area to work with, raise a makeshift barrier, such as a sheet of plastic, to separate the sick from the healthy. Even if you have a dedicated sick room, keep group members with injuries separate from those with infectious diseases such as influenza. Although wounds will sometimes become infected, they won’t likely be as contagious as epidemic illnesses.

tent joe's kids

The injured should be separate from the infected, if possible

A sick room in a retreat with air conditioning won’t qualify as decent ventilation when the power’s down. In this case, air ducts are actually more a danger than a benefit. Microbes passing through the air ducts in the sick room to other areas may present a risk for transmission of disease. Cover with duct tape. Keep windows or tent flaps open, however, except in particularly bad weather. Screening may be necessary in areas with lots of insects, or netting provided over the beds.

Furnishings should be minimal, with a work surface, an exam area, and bed spaces. In mild weather, some of these bed space can be outside, as long as shade is provided via a canopy or other means. Hard surfaces are preferable to fabric upholstery, as cloth can harbor disease-causing organisms. Even bedding might best be covered in plastic. The more areas that can be disinfected easily, the better.

It’s important to have a way to eliminate waste products of bedridden patients, even if it’s just a 5-gallon bucket and some bleach. Containers with lids should be made available to put used sick room items that need cleaning.

shutterstock_209173573

Keep a basin with soap and water at the entrance to the sick room

A station should be set up near the entrance of the sick room or hospital tent for caregivers’ masks, gloves, gowns, aprons, and other personal protection items (have a good supply of these items). You’ll should also have a basin with water, soap, or other disinfectant. Thermometers should be dipped in alcohol.

Many consider medical supplies to consist of gauze, tourniquets, and battle dressings, but you must also dedicate sets of sheets, towels, pillows, and other items to be used in the sick room. Keep these items separate from the bedding, bathing, and eating materials of the healthy members of your family or group.

Having a lot of these may seem like overkill to you, but there can never be enough dedicated medical supplies. Expect to care for more people that you’ve planned for. There will always be additions that weren’t planned, and medical items will be expended much faster than you’d expect.

Cleaning supplies should also be considered medical preparedness items. You’ll want to clean the sick room thoroughly on a daily basis. Hard surfaces should be regularly cleaned with soap and water, or use other disinfectants such as a 1:10 bleach solution. Don’t forget to disinfect the doorknobs, tables, sinks, toilets, counters, and even toys.

Wash bed sheets and towels frequently; boil them if you have no other way to clean them. As these items may carry disease-causing organisms, wash your hands after use. The same goes for plates, cups, etc. Any equipment brought into the sick room should stay there.

One additional item that will be important to your sick room patients: Give them a whistle or other noisemaker that will allow them to alert you when they need help. This will decrease anxiety and give them confidence that you will know when they are in distress.

The duties of a medic involve more than how to control bleeding or splint an orthopedic injury. Medical problems involving infectious disease may take a heavy toll on your people if the sick aren’t isolated from the healthy. Knowing how to put together an effective sick room will go a long way towards helping the sick get healthy and the healthy stay that way.

 

Joe Alton, MD

AuthorJoe

Joe Alton MD

Find out more about dealing with infectious disease in times of trouble in our 700 page Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way, available at Amazon or on this website.

The Survival medicine handbook Third Edition 2016

The Survival Medicine Handbook 2017 Third Edition

Foot Fungus Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Click here to view the original post.
athletes-foot-large

Tinea Pedis

The medic in austere settings may have to deal with major medical issues; there are minor issues, however, that don’t threaten your patients’ lives, but can seriously affect their quality of life or work efficiency.  In times of trouble, you’ll need your people at 110%, and many issues, such as toothaches or foot infections, can become a nuisance or worse.

One problem that is very common (and will be more so off the grid) is foot and toenail fungus, also called “Athlete’s Foot”.  When your dogs (by that, I mean your feet) are howling because you aren’t able to change socks often, Athlete’s Foot might be the cause.  Expect this to be particularly relevant in scenarios where you’re constantly on the move.

Athlete’s Foot

Athlete’s foot (also known as “tinea pedis”) is an infection of the skin caused by a type of fungus known as Trychophyton. A fungus is a microscopic organism that likes dark and humid conditions.

This condition may be a chronic issue, lasting for years if not treated. Neglect can lead to its spread from between the toes to hands and groin.

It’s important to know that fungal infections are likely to be contagious. They can be passed by sharing shoes or socks and even from wet surfaces such as shower floors.  Those affected by Athlete’s Foot may also find themselves with other fungal conditions like Ringworm or Jock Itch (“Tinea Cruris”).

What Are Risk Factors For Athlete’s Foot?

 

Any fungal infection is made worse by moist conditions. People who are prone to Athlete’s foot commonly:

  • Spend long hours in closed shoes
  • Keep their feet wet for prolonged periods
  • Have had a tendency to get cuts on feet and hands
  • Perspire a lot
  • Are male
  • Are older or have chronic medical conditions like diabetes

What Does Foot Fungus Look Like?

athletes-foot

typical appearance of tinea pedis

To make a diagnosis, look for whitish flaky skin between the toes or fingers., which often appear red and raw. The nails may be yellowed, thickened, and “crumbly”.  Toenails may even separate from the underlying nail bed. Itching and burning in the affected areas is common and sometimes becomes severe. If the skin has been traumatized by scratching, you might see some fluid drainage.  Often, the damage caused by scratching is worse than the infection itself, leading to secondary bacterial infections like cellulitis.

Although toenails will appear yellowish in Athlete’s Foot, dark spots (brown, blue, or black) under the nail may be just debris or could be related to other issues. After an injury, a collection of blood under the nail (called a “hematoma”) will be dark and, often, painful. Less often, a tumor such as a cancer called “melanoma”, may first present with a dark or mottled appearance.

Treatment of Foot Fungus

If the condition is mild, keeping your feet clean and dry may be enough to allow slow improvement of the condition. Oftentimes, however, topical antifungal ointments or powders such as miconazole or clotrimazole are required for relief.  In the worst cases, oral prescription antifungals such as fluconazole (Diflucan) or terbinafine (Lamisil) are needed.

Although creams and ointments cover the skin between the toes more thoroughly, don’t use them too often; excessive moisture may delay healing.

In the worse cases, an infected nail may require removal. If so, it may take a year to grow back.

Patience is a virtue when monitoring the healing process, which may take more than a month for a significant case of Athlete’s Foot to resolve. In the meantime, disinfect shoes with antifungal powders on at least a weekly basis.

Home Remedies

vinegar

cloudy vinegar useful for relief

A favorite home remedy for Athlete’s Foot involves placing Tea Tree Oil liberally to a foot bath and soaking for 20 minutes or so.  Dry the feet well and then apply a few drops onto the affected area. Repeat this process twice daily. Try to keep the area as dry as possible otherwise. For prevention of future outbreaks of Athlete’s Foot, apply tea tree oil once a week before putting on socks and shoes.

5% Apple cider vinegar foot soaks (2-4 cups) may work as well. The acid will kill the fungus, as well as soften and break down the skin changes it causes. Use a washcloth to gently scrub the infected areas. If you notice irritation from the bath, dilute with water.

Others recommend soaks with other items, such as black tea, cinnamon, betadine, or Epsom salts.

Long-term therapy with Snakeroot extract may help. Apply every third day for the first month, and once a week thereafter for two to three months. Alternatively, dip a cotton ball in the vinegar and hold to affected areas for several minutes.

Vicks Vap-o-Rub, applied with a swab, shows partial important in more than half of cases.

One method that doesn’t work is urinating on your feet in the shower. Although there is ammonia in urine that might kill germs, it’s not strong enough to kill the Athlete’s foot fungus.

You might have your own home remedy for foot fungus. If so, feel free to post it in the comments section.

 

Joe Alton, MD

AuthorJoe

Joe Alton, MD

Find out more about foot fungus and other minor and major medical issues related to survival, check out a copy of our Third Edition (700 pages) of The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way, available at amazon.com and here at store.doomandbloom.net.

Sulfa as a Survival Antibiotic

Click here to view the original post.

 

Fish Sulfa Forte = Bactrim/Septra

In survival settings, it’s reasonable to assume that you’ll be performing activities that aren’t part of your routine in normal times, like, say, chopping wood for fuel. When you’re doing chores to which you’re not accustomed, injuries can occur. Of course, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Using protective eyewear, gloves, and boots may prevent an injury that could become life-threatening off the grid.

It might be difficult to envision that a simple cut could turn lethal, but in survival, many of these wounds are “dirty”; that is, they’re contaminated with bacteria or other microbes. Today, the use of drugs called antibiotics can nip infections in the bud. in any situation where modern medicine isn’t available, however, these wounds can become problematic. If an infection enters the bloodstream (a condition called “septicemia”), things can go downhill quickly.  

A while ago, I did a series of articles and videos on antibiotics, and talked about popular drugs like amoxicillin, doxycycline, Cipro and others that you can find in aquarium and avian versions. Available in capsules and tablets that are essentially identical to those provided for human use (even down to identification numbers), the wise medic should have some of these tools in the medical woodshed for when the you-know-what hits the fan.

Quick disclaimer: This doesn’t mean that you should be using them in normal times. Remember that it’s illegal and punishable by law to practice medicine without a license. If modern medical professionals exist, seek them out.

Today we’ll talk about a family of antibiotic called sulfonamides, or sulfa drugs. Sulfonamides act to inhibit an enzyme involved in folate synthesis, an important part of the production of bacterial DNA. Sulfonamides are bacteriostatic, which means that they don’t directly kill bacteria. They do, however, significantly inhibit growth and multiplication, which leads to eventual elimination of bacteria from the body.

Sulfonamides were available even before Penicillin, and are credited with saving the lives of tens of thousands during WWII, including that of Winston Churchill. Soldier’s first aid kits even came with sulfa pills or powder.

bird sulfa

Bird Sulfa

A specific version, Sulfamethoxazole 400mg/Trimethoprim 80mg (veterinary equivalent: Bird- Sulfa or Fish-Sulfa) is a combination of two medications in the Sulfa family. This drug is well-known in the U.S. by its brand names Bactrim and Septra. Our British friends may recognize it by the name Co-Trimoxazole. The two antibiotics work synergistically, which means that, together, they are stronger in their effect than alone.

Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim is effective in the treatment of the following:

·        Some upper and lower respiratory infections (chronic bronchitis and pneumonia)

·        Kidney and bladder infections

·        Ear infections in children

·        Cholera

·        Intestinal infections caused by E. coli and Shigella bacteria (a cause of dysentery)

·        Skin and wound infections, including MRSA

·        Traveler’s diarrhea

·        Acne

The usual dosage in adults is sulfamethoxazole 800-mg/Trimethoprim 160mg twice a day for most of the above conditions for 10 days (5 days in traveler’s diarrhea).

The recommended dose for pediatric patients with urinary tract infections or acute otitis media (ear infection) is  40 mg/ kg sulfamethoxazole and 8mg/kg trimethoprim per 24 hours, given in two divided doses every 12 hours, for 10 days. 1 kilogram equals 2.2 pounds. This medication should not be used in infants 2 months old or younger.

In rat studies, the use of this drug was seen to cause birth defects; therefore, it is not used during pregnancy.

silvadene

Silvadene cream

Another sulfa drug, Sulfadiazine, is combined with Silver to make Silvadene, a cream useful for aiding the healing process in skin wounds and burns. Cover completely twice a day.

Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim and other Sulfonamides are well known to cause allergic reactions in some individuals. These reactions to sulfa drugs are almost as common as Penicillin allergies, and usually manifest as rashes, hives, and/or nausea and vomiting. Worse reactions, however, can cause blood disorders as well as severe skin, liver, and pancreatic damage. Those with conditions relating to these organs should avoid the drug.

Although an allergy to Sulfa drugs may be common, it is not the same allergy as to Penicillin. Those allergic to Penicillin can take Sulfa drugs, although it’s possible to be allergic to both.

It’s important to understand that antibiotics aren’t candy: they must be used wisely and only when absolutely necessary. The overuse of antibiotics (mostly in livestock) is responsible for an epidemic of antibiotic resistance. Having them in your medical storage, however, can prevent the medic from experiencing headaches, and heartaches, if things go South.

Joe Alton, MD aka Dr. Bones

JoeAltonLibrary3

Joe Alton, MD

Learn more about antibiotics and 150 other medical topics related to survival by checking out a copy of our 700 page Third Edition of The Survival Medicine Handbook: THE Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way.

The Survival medicine handbook Third Edition 2016

The Survival Medicine Handbook 2016 Third Edition

Video: All About Dysentery

Click here to view the original post.
Shigella boydii

Shigella bacteria

In this video, Joe Alton, MD, aka Dr. Bones of DoomandBloom.net, discusses the issue of infectious diseases as the main causes of avoidable deaths in survival scenarios. In particular, he talks about dysentery, a disease that is transmitted by bacteria in contaminated food and water. Here’s all you need to know about this killer in past and future times of trouble. Companion video to a previous article on the same topic.

To watch, just click below:

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

 

Joe Alton, MD

JoeAltonLibrary3

Joe Alton, MD

Find out more about dysentery and 150 more medical issues in the latest 700 page edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook: THE Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way, available at store.doomandbloom.net or Amazon.com!

 

Dysentery in Survival Settings

Click here to view the original post.
bacteria

dysentery may be caused by bacteria or parasites

 

In survival scenarios, many believe that trauma from gunfights at the OK corral will cause the most deaths. The truth, however, is that many avoidable losses will occur due to more basic issues, such as dehydration from infectious diarrheal diseases. These most often occur from failure to assure the sterilization of water, proper preparation of food, and safe disposal of human waste. One of the many duties of the medic in austere settings is to supervise these activities.

 

I’ve written about some of these diseases before, such as Cholera, but I haven’t discussed dysentery in much detail. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines dysentery as diarrhea in which blood is present in loose, watery bowel movements. Unlike Cholera, dysentery is a diarrheal disease that can be caused by several different organisms. It can be spread from human to human or, less commonly, from animals to humans.

 

Most cases of diarrhea are mild and easily treated with fluids and avoidance of certain food products, like dairy. Dysentery, however, is a more serious form where inflammation of the large intestine causes watery stools mixed with blood, pus, and mucus.

 

There are two types of dysentery:

 

Bacillary: Most often caused by several variants of the bacteria family Shigella, but E. Coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter may also be involved.

 

Amoebic: A parasite, Entamoeba Histolytica, is more commonly seen in tropical and subtropical climates.

 

Dysentery was the cause of death of many soldiers in the Civil War. In total, infectious diseases like Cholera, Typhoid, and others killed more men than bullets or shrapnel.

 

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DYSENTERY

cholera 1

Nausea and vomiting can be seen in dysentery and other diarrheal diseases

 

About 2-10 days after infection, the patient will begin to show symptoms. Some will experience mild effects but others will progress to more severe disease. Beside frequent watery stools mixed with blood and mucus (sometimes 20-30 times a day!), you may see:

 

·        high fevers

·        abdominal pain and bloating

·        Excessive gas

·        Loss of appetite

·        Weakness and fatigue

·        Urgent need to evacuate

·        Vomiting

 

All of the above leads to significant dehydration, which is complicated in severe bacillary dysentery by erosion of the lining of the gut, leading to ulcers that cause bleeding from the rectum. Combined with the effect of bacterial toxins, death may occur quickly without antibiotic therapy and IV fluids. Amoebic dysentery may follow a similar course or be more prolonged in nature, leading to a weakened system and the formation of pockets of pus in the liver.  

 

TREATING DYSENTERY

oralrehydrationpack

oral rehydration salts

 

As you can imagine, any form of this disease will greatly decrease the chance for survival off the grid. As the well-prepared medic can intervene early with certain medicines, a high index of suspicion will decrease avoidable deaths.

 

For bacillary dysentery like that caused by Shigella, antibiotics like ciprofloxacin (Fish-Flox) or azithromycin (Aquatic Azithromycin) are used as treatment.  Amoebic dysentery can be treated with an anti-parasitic drug such as metronidazole (Fish-Zole). Dosing can be found in our book “The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way” or in various articles at doomandbloom.net. Loperamide (Imodium) and Pepto-Bismol (Bismuth Subsalicylate) are additional items that will be useful tools in the medical woodshed.

 

Of course, it’s especially important to rehydrate victims aggressively. Oral rehydration salts contain electrolytes that will more effectively aid recovery. These can be purchased commercially or improvised using the following formula:

 

To one liter of water (2 liters for children), add:

·        6-8 teaspoons of sugar

·        ½-3/4 teaspoons of salt

·        ¼-1/2 teaspoons of salt substitute (used by people who can’t use regular salt. This item has potassium, an important electrolyte, and can be found wherever regular salt is found.)

·        A pinch of baking soda for bicarbonate

 

PREVENTION

 

vegetables wash

prevent infectious disease with thorough washing

Prevention of dysentery requires understanding of how it’s spread. Transmission often occurs by infected individuals who handle food without washing first or use unsterilized water. Some people may carry the organisms and show no symptoms, at least for a time. As contamination with human feces is a big factor, the medic has to closely supervise the building and use of latrines and other facilities.

 

Dysentery is just one of the issues that can cause headaches and heartaches for the survival medic. With some knowledge and supplies, you’ll have a better chance to keep your family safe in times of trouble.

 

Joe Alton, MD

JoeAltonLibrary3

Joe Alton, MD

Fill those holes in your medical storage by checking out Nurse Amy’s entire line of often-imitated, never-equaled kits and supplies at store.doomandbloom.net!

How to Control Rodents as Disease Vectors

Click here to view the original post.
rats-in-a-trap

Brown rats may reach 16 inches in length, including tail

 

in survival settings, it’s been said that rats will do a better job of surviving than humans. Rats, mice, and other rodents are well-known causes of “zoonotic” infections.  A zoonotic disease is one that can be transmitted from animals to humans.  The animal in question may not have symptoms of the disease itself, but may serve as a “vector”; that is, it carries the disease to a human target.

Rats and mice belong to the order Rodentia, from the latin word rodere (“to gnaw”).  This order contains various families, including beavers, porcupines, squirrels, and gophers.  As you are unlikely to have an infestation of beavers in your home, we’ll concentrate on rats and mice. Ai pair of rats could produce 1,500 offspring in one year if they all reproduced. Most rats and mice that cause issues for humans come from the “Old World”.  These include:

Brown rats (rattus norvegicus): Also called Norway rats, although they didn’t originate there (Norway has no more rat issues than other countries). Brown rats may reach 16 inches (including the tail) and are good swimmers; the term “sewer rat” was coined for them.

Black rats (rattus rattus): Thought to have introduced the Plague to Europe through their fleas. The black rat, also called the “roof rat”, is slightly smaller than its brown cousin and is an excellent climber.

House mice (Mus musculus): Used to living in close quarters with humans, mice are “nibblers” and can contaminate an entire pantry by taking a few bites out of multiple food items. Mice and other rodents can also chew through electrical wiring, thereby constituting a fire hazard.

Rats and mice are some of the world’s most invasive species. Every year, a percentage of the world’s food supply is contaminated by their droppings, urine, and hair. These items, known as “fomites”, may contain disease-carrying organisms and, as such, render food unfit for human consumption.

hooded rats

Long-Evans hooded rats I worked with in labs help further medical research

Before I go further, let me tell our readers who have rats and mice as pets that they (the pets, not necessarily the owners) are generally clean, intelligent creatures.  I have had the privilege of working with them in university laboratories as a student.  Despite this, it is indisputable that the diseases they may carry are cause for concern.

MEDICAL ISSUES CAUSED BY RODENTS

From a medical perspective, what diseases might one contract from a rodent or its droppings?  These include:

Plague:  The Plague is caused by a bacterium known as Yersinia Pestis. It is carried by fleas. The black rat’s arrival in Europe in the Middle Ages (and with it, its fleas) caused pandemics of the disease that wiped out a third of the population. Even today, Plague exists in developing countries and, there have been hundreds of cases in the U.S. over the past three decades.

Hantavirus: Hantavirus, transmitted by mice in urine, droppings or saliva, causes a serious lung disease that may become fatal without the availability of intensive care.

Leptospirosis: Caused by consuming food contaminated by rat urine, Leptospirosis causes a flu-like syndrome that progresses to kidney and liver failure if untreated.  This disease can also be carried by certain livestock.

Lymphocytic Chorio-Meningitis Virus (LCMV): LCMV may be contracted from mice urine or droppings or from pets in contact with mice, such as hamsters.   It causes a flu-like syndrome that occasionally causes complications in the nervous system, especially in people with weakened immune systems or pregnant women.  LCMV may cause miscarriage or birth defects.

Salmonellosis: Infection with the bacteria Salmonella may occur as a result of handling of pet rats or mice, especially if they have had diarrhea.  It causes severe diarrheal disease in humans, and is one good reason for owners of rats and mice to wash their hands after handling.

Rat Bite Fever: Infection with the bacterium Strebtobacillus occurs from rat bites and scratches or from ingesting food or water contaminated with rat droppings. Abrupt onset of fevers, rashes, vomiting, and headaches are noted at first, with general deterioration afterwards. If untreated, there is a 10% death rate.

RODENT-PROOFING A RETREAT

homestead-cabin-pixabay

rodent-proofing

It’s simply common sense to take measures to prevent rodent infestation in the home and to eliminate those already there. Once an infestation has occurred, much more effort is required to dislodge these unwanted guests. Rodent-proofing a home requires careful evaluation for points of entry from the level of the foundation to the roofline.  This includes sewer lines, bathroom vents, pipes and gutters, doors and windows, and vegetation near concrete slabs.

Some rodent-proofing techniques for homes include:

  • Sealing cracks in building foundations, walls, siding, and roof joints with, for example, mesh hardware cloth or concrete patching. Rodents only need ¼ inch of opening to gnaw their way into your home. Metal mesh scouring pads or galvanized window screening (not steel wool, which quickly deteriorates) may be stuffed into crevices as a temporary solution.
  • Installing vent guards in bathroom or washer/dryer vents.
  • Placing barriers to prevent climbing rodents from going up pipes or gutters.
  • Trimming trees so that branches don’t come close to the roof.
  • Contacting the utility company for strategies to prevent rats from traveling along power lines to your house.
  • Preventing rodents, especially rats, from tunneling under the foundation by placing flat concrete pavers or gravel for the first 3 feet from the base of the house.

Rodent control also involves careful attention to both indoor and outdoor sanitation.  Here are some suggestions for the wise homeowner:

  • Never leave food or water out overnight. Keep your countertops clean and disinfected.
  • Breadboxes may seem old-fashioned, but they are there for a reason: To keep the bread away from rats and mice.
  • Never leave pet food outside, clean all bowls daily, whether they are used inside or out. Rodents love to eat dog and cat food.
  • Clean under kitchen appliances. Even a few crumbs will make a meal for a mouse or rat.
  • Keep garbage disposals and sinks clean with a cup of bleach once a month.
  • Never flush grease down the sink drain.
  • Keep toilet lids down until needed.
  • Store dry foods, even pet foods, in sealed containers at least 18 inches off the floor.
  • Construct barriers around birdhouses and bird-feeders to prevent seed from being accessible to rodents.
  • Remove any fruits or vegetables from your garden that you won’t use.
  • Keep garbage can lids tightly closed.
  • Keep the side and back yards free of debris that might serve as shelters.
  • Deny access to water by fixing leaky faucets.
  • Avoid putting animal products in your compost bin.

IDENTIFYING INFESTATIONS

Rodent droppings

rodent droppings (source: city of Berkeley, CA)

If you’re not sure that your home is currently rodent-free, you might consider:

  • Looking for any partially eaten food, gnawed containers, or nesting material.
  • Inspecting your home’s interior at night with a flashlight; look especially closely at the bases of walls, as rats and mice prefer to travel along them. Little used areas of the home should be especially targeted.
  • Looking for rodent droppings. Mice and rat defecate 50 times a day; if they are in your home, you should be able to find their feces along floorboards, in attic crawl spaces, and in basements.
  • Setting out a thin layer of flour or talcum powder by areas through which rats and mice might enter your home. Place some, as well, along floorboards; rodents prefer to travel along walls. The rodents will leave tracks which will prove their presence.
  • Having cats and dogs as “mousers”. They may or may not be efficient, but they usually will alert you when a rodent is near.
  • Listening for squeaking and scrabbling noises inside walls at night.
  • Check for unusual smells. If there are a lot of rats in your home, you may notice an odor from their urine.

ELIMINATING THE PROBLEM

rats as food

A method of rodent control not discussed in this article

Once you have made the determination that you have rats or mice in your home, it’s time to reduce the population.  It should be noted that long-term control will be difficult if you haven’t followed my earlier suggestions for indoor and outdoor sanitation.

There are myriad mouse and rat-traps on the market and a number of poisons available to kill rodent invaders. It makes more sense to use traps, in my opinion, as poisons may leave you with a bunch of dead, rotting animals inside your walls. The stench may last a month or more, and sometimes deodorizer is needed to be inserted through a hole drilled in the wall.

If you have a lot of rats in your yard, you shouldn’t use poisons, as they may be ingested by neighborhood pets or even children. You should, however, consider trapping boxes. These can be snap traps, electronic “zappers”, glue traps or even catch and release versions. Both rats and mice will readily go for a small amount of fresh peanut butter as bait. Advice to the soft-hearted: Brown rats, black rats, and house mice are not native wildlife; besides other damage, some will cause casualties among endangered songbird eggs and young if released.

Glue traps are popular but controversial.  They are better weapons against mice than rats. Unfortunately, they usually leave you with a live animal to kill.  If you must use them, euthanize the rodent by throwing the trap and animal into a bucket of water or by striking it with a stick several times just behind the head. Another disadvantage of the glue trap is that it loses effectiveness in dusty areas or in extreme temperatures.

Snap traps should always be placed in perpendicular fashion, with the bait side against the wall.  Never use just one trap: Place a number of them several feet apart in the rodent’s usual path. Traps can be fastened to pipes with wire or thick rubber bands.

When cleaning out a building that has been infested with rats or mice, specific safety precautions should be followed to avoid infection. First and foremost, remember that you should never handle a wild rodent, alive or dead, without disposable gloves. Masks should be worn when cleaning. Other steps to follow:

  • Open windows and doors before cleaning to allow it to air out, then leave for an hour.
  • Avoid raising dust if at all possible.
  • Steam-clean all carpeting and upholstery.
  • Clean all surfaces with a diluted bleach solution or other household disinfectant, soaking areas that held dead animals, nests, or droppings.
  • Wash all bedding linens, pillows, etc. and use the high heat setting on your dryer.
  • Eliminate any insulation material contaminated by rodent urine, feces, or nesting material
  • As ultraviolet light can kill viruses, place contaminated items that cannot be thrown away (such as important documents), outside in the sun for several hours. If this isn’t possible, “quarantine” the items for a week in a rodent-free area.  This should give enough time for viruses to be inactived.
  • Dispose of any contaminated items or dead rodents in a plastic bag, and then place them in an exterior garbage can.
  • Thoroughly wash hands after cleaning. Consider showering with soap and hot water.

We share our world with many other creatures. Some of these creatures invade our homes and can damage our possessions and, more importantly, our health. With careful attention to sanitation and the occasional surgical strike, we can eliminate unwanted guests and make our homes safe environments for our families.

Joe Alton, MD

JoeAltonLibrary3

Dr. Alton

Learn more about animal-borne diseases and 150 other medical topics in the Third Edition of the Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way, now available at Amazon.com.

 

 

 

 

 

Parasites Dealing with Infection in a Down-Grid Scenario

Click here to view the original post.

Parasites Dealing with Infection in a Down-Grid Scenario Cat Ellis “Herbal Prepper Live” Audio in player below! This show is all about parasites, both internal and external. Be sure to listen and learn how to respond to these kinds of infections when there isn’t a doctor or a pharmacy available. A caller to the show … Continue reading Parasites Dealing with Infection in a Down-Grid Scenario

The post Parasites Dealing with Infection in a Down-Grid Scenario appeared first on Prepper Broadcasting |Network.

Survival Medicine Hour: Anaphylaxis, Ear Infections, Hemorrhage

Click here to view the original post.
earanatomy-ftr300

Ear Anatomy

The Survival Medicine Hour, hosted by Joe Alton, MD aka Dr. Bones and Amy Alton, ARNP, aka Nurse Amy of https://www.doomandbloom.net/ brings you a few topics, including ear infections, bleeding control and the final part 3 of the allergy series: anaphylaxis. Monday, February 20, 2017 is President’s Day, but do you know about the pre-George Washington “Presidents”? Do you also know who held the presidential office twice, but not with consecutive terms?

anaphylaxis

signs/symptoms of anaphylaxis

Severe allergic reactions may cause body-wide reactions called anaphylaxis that can be life-threatening. Although few die from simple allergic reactions, anaphylaxis is much more severe and, without quick intervention, the victim can die from respiratory or cardiac arrest. Having an epi-pen handy is advisable, although you can learn how to dose with epinephrine solution from a sterile vial.

 

Ear infections are fairly common in babies and children, and an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Keep your ear canal as dry as possible during and after swimming. Feed babies in a head-up position, to prevent formula or milk from entering the passages into the ear. Beware of early warning signs before the ear infection becomes severe, such as: pain and itching, drainage from the ear canal and redness and swelling in the ear canal. babies may tug at their ear.

 

Plus, an introduction to hemorrhage and its effects on the human body.

 

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/02/17/survival-medicine-hour-ear-infections-bleeding-anaphylaxis

 

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

 

Joe and Amy Alton, aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy

joe and amy radio

The Altons

Video: Cold Prevention Myths and Facts

Click here to view the original post.

colds

In this video, Joe Alton, MD, aka Dr. Bones, discusses some common misconceptions about colds and how to prevent them. Companion video to a recent article.

To watch, click below…

 

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

 

Joe and Amy Alton, aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy

 

 

drbones-nurseamy

Video: Norovirus, the Stomach Flu

Click here to view the original post.

hot-dog-stand

In this video, Joe Alton, MD discusses a recent experience with the stomach flu on a trip to New York. Norovirus is the most common cause of the “stomach flu”, a debilitating and dehydrating intestinal illness that affects millions every year throughout the world. Often caused by contaminated food on cruises, 800 students at a high school in Illinois were recently affected, presumably due to cafeteria issues. Learn more about the norovirus and what to do if you or a loved one comes down with it.

 

To watch, click below:

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

 

Joe Alton, MD

joealtonlibrary4

Survival Medicine Hour: Norovirus, Cold Myths, Man Flu?

Click here to view the original post.
virus

Norovirus: The Stomach Flu

In this episode of the Survival Medicine Hour with Joe and Amy Alton, aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy, a bout of acute gastroenteritis, also called “stomach flu” caused by Norovirus sends Nurse Amy to urgent care. Find out about the microbe that sends two million victims to their doctors every year in the U.S., how to prevent it and some other important advice to stay healthy this winter.

colds

Also, top ten myths people believe will prevent a cold. We know there’s one or two in there you think are true! Also, why do men seem to have worse symptoms than women when they get the flu or other viruses? Is there such a thing as the Man Flu?

All this and more on the latest episode of the Survival Medicine Hour with Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton, ARNP. To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2016/12/16/survival-medicine-hour-norovirus-cold-myths-man-flu

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad, and Merry Christmas!

Joe and Amy Alton

JoeAmyLabcoatSMALL300x300

Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy

The “Stomach Flu” Virus

Click here to view the original post.
oysters

Oysters may harbor norovirus

We often write about disaster situations that we personally experience. We’ve been through hurricanes, tornadoes, and epidemics, just to mention a few. Recently, our home in Gatlinburg, Tennessee was threatened by the wildfires there, which killed 14 and wiped out more than 1700 buildings and over 100 on the mountain where the house is located.

 

We’ve written about a number of medical issues that we’ve experienced as well. For example, I converted to positive for Tuberculosis during my work with Cuban refugees during the 1980 Mariel boatlift. I still carry a small walled-off nodule on X-ray, even after months of multi-drug therapy.

 

On a recent trip to New York City to visit our daughter, we both experienced a medical issue so common that it surprised us that we haven’t yet written about it: acute gastroenteritis, or the “Stomach Flu”. When this infection hits you, it makes even the healthiest individual miserable. Nurse Amy required an urgent care visit, no small issue in a strange and heavily-populated city. She was just one of nearly 2 million outpatient visits caused by norovirus in the U.S. every year.

 

Norovirus is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans. It was originally called “Norwalk Virus”, after the area where it was first identified in the 1960s. Since then, it’s been blamed for 50% of all gastroenteritis in the U.S. Worldwide, there are more than 200 million cases of norovirus infection a year. It affects people of all ages, but it’s particularly dangerous in the elderly, the very young, and those with weakened immune systems. Winter is the most common time for outbreaks.

 

Norovirus is very contagious (just 5-20 viral particles can cause illness) and is easily transmitted through contaminated food or water, close personal contact, and by air droplets from vomit, contaminated food counters, and even toilet flushes. Infection can be passed from person to person for a time even after apparent recovery.

 

Here’s how contagious the norovirus is: In one outbreak reported in 1998, 126 people were dining at a restaurant when one person vomited onto the floor. Despite a rapid cleanup, 52 fell ill within three days. More than 90% of the people who later dined at the same table reported symptoms. More than 70% of the diners at a nearby table got sick; at a table on the other side of the restaurant, the rate was still 25%.

 

Norovirus is a hardy microbe, and is known to survive for long periods outside a human host. It can live for weeks on countertops and up to twelve days on clothes. It can survive for months in still water. Disinfectants containing chlorine, however, like bleach will quickly eliminate it, as will sufficient heat.

 

The symptoms of the stomach flu include nausea and vomiting, watery diarrhea, and (sometimes severe) abdominal pain, usually within 12 to 48 hours of exposure. Along with this, muscle aches, headache, and fever may be seen. Luckily, life-threatening illness is rare, with dehydration being the main danger in those infected with the virus.

 

Unlike some viruses, immunity to norovirus is only temporary, maybe six months, after recovery.

 

Outbreaks of norovirus infection often occur in closed spaces such as cruise ships, nursing homes, schools, camps, and prisons. Shellfish, such as oysters, and salad ingredients are the foods most often implicated in norovirus outbreaks. In our case, it might have been a kiosk advertising “the World’s Best Hot Dogs”.hot-dog-stand

As is the case with most viruses, there is no cure for norovirus infection. Antibiotics will not be effective, as they are meant to kill bacteria, not viruses. Treatment involves staying well-hydrated. Dehydration can be noted by these symptoms:

 

  • ·        Dry mouth

  • ·        Decrease in quantity or dark color of urine

  • ·        Dizziness when standing up

  • ·        Decreased elasticity of skin (it “tents” when pulled)

  • ·        No tears when crying or unusual irritability in infants

Using antidiarrheal meds like loperamide (Imodium) and anti-vomiting drugs like Ondansetron (Zofran) may also help.

 

A cure may not be available but prevention is another issue. To decrease the chance of norovirus infection:

 

·        Wash your hands frequently with soap and water (norovirus is relatively resistant to alcohol), especially after using the restroom or handling food. Be especially sure to do this for 2 weeks after becoming infected (yes, you can be contagious for that long).

·        Wash food before cooking; cook shellfish thoroughly

·        Frequently disinfect contaminated surfaces with a bleach solution (the EPA recommends 5-25 drops of bleach per gallon)

·        Keep sick individuals away from food preparation areas

·        Avoid close contact with others when you are sick, and don’t share utensils or other items

·        Wear disposable gloves while handling soiled items

·        Immediately remove and wash clothes that may be contaminated with vomit or feces. Machine dry if possible.

 

It may be difficult to completely eliminate the risk of norovirus infection, but careful attention to hand and food hygiene will go a long way towards avoiding the stomach flu.

 

Joe Alton, MD

joealtonlibrary4

 Check out Nurse Amy’s entire line of medical kits and individual supplies at her store at store.doomandbloom.net.

 

Zika Defects More Common Than Previously Thought

Click here to view the original post.
microcephaly-reuse-wiki

microcephalic infant

A recent U.S. study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association has found that 6% of 400 babies infected with Zika virus born here had one or more related birth defects. The study pales in comparison, however, to a Brazilian study of 125 women just reported in the New England Journal of Medicine. In that study, 46% of babies had abnormalities or did not survive the pregnancy. Previous studies had shown a risk of defects of 1 to 13 per cent.

Troubling evidence has now emerged that suggests that babies may still develop issues even as they approach their first birthday. Previously, it was thought that all damage occurred while still in the womb. Now scientists are asserting that the virus may continue to destroy nervous tissue for a time after birth.

The timing of the infection seemed to have an impact, with 11% of U.S. pregnancies diagnosed with Zika in the first trimester yielding babies with birth defects, less in mid- or late-pregnancy. Although Zika virus lasts only a short time in the blood, it appears to possibly last for months in brain tissue. The overall incidence of 6% in the U.S. was the same for women who experienced symptoms of Zika illness and those who were asymptomatic.

Most cases in the continental United States were diagnosed in women who had traveled to the epidemic zone, although an epidemic of more than 30,000 locally transmitted cases was seen in Puerto Rico and a local outbreak of more than 200 cases was noted in South Florida. More recently, a case of local transmission was reported in the Brownsville area of Texas.

Zika virus is known to cause increased numbers of newborns with microcephaly, an abnormality of growth in the brain and fetal head normally seen in less than 1% of all births. In the lab, Zika has been shown to kill brain cells. Other defects in sight, hearing, joints, and elsewhere have also been detected, according to Margaret Honein, lead author of the U.S. study and head of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.

Another troubling aspect is that the Zika virus is completely asymptomatic in 80% of those infected. This means that the actual number of cases may be five times the recorded numbers. Additionally, it is unknown what developmental milestones may be delayed over the first few years of life, and whether school performance may be affected.

asian-tiger-mosquito

The best way to prevent Zika virus is still to prevent mosquito bites by wearing appropriate clothing and using repellent when in at-risk areas (or avoid travel there altogether), Pregnancies should be delayed for 8 weeks in women who have had the virus or traveled to the epidemic zone. Men shouldn’t attempt to impregnate their partner for at least 6 months.

 

Joe Alton, MD

JoeAltonLibrary4

Get a copy of our 700 page third edition of “The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way”, available on this website and also at amazon.com.

It’s not too late to get a copy of the premiere board game of the preparedness community “Doom and Bloom’s SURVIVAL!” as a Christmas gift! Find out all about it at survivalboardgame.com.

Game-Play-Mockup-smallest

Doom and Bloom’s Survival, now with free miniatures

minis

Survival Medicine Hour: Pneumonia, Natural Remedies

Click here to view the original post.
TentMEDIUM

survival medicine

The Survival Medicine Hour, with Joe Alton, MD aka Dr. Bones and Amy Alton, ARNP aka Nurse Amy, bring you a tremendous amount of information today. Are you going to be the medic or caretaker in a disaster or survival situation?  Our mission is to help put a medically prepared person in every family for any disaster.

Pneumonia is an infection affecting the aprt of the lungs that absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere. Pneumonia may be viral, bacterial or fungal infection. The infection usually starts by affecting a portion of one lung (a “lobe”) before spreading to the entire organ. If enough fluid clogs the air clogs the air sacs (alveoli), it’s possible, while listening to lung sounds, you actually won’t hear any sounds at all.

Natural remedies are available for help with respiratory infections to reduce symptoms and build a person’s immunity. Antioxidants, like Vitamin C and Vitamin E and other antioxidants taken regularly are supposed to decrease the frequency and severity of respiratory infections.

Some of the best essential oils for symptoms are Lavender, Eucalyptus, Rosemary, Peppermint and Geranium. Herbal teas such as Stinging Nettle, Licorice Root, Peppermint, Anise Sage and Dandelion are all made better with a bit of raw, unprocessed honey and fresh squeezed lemon.

Joe Alton, MD

joealtonlibrary4

Joe Alton MD

Survival Medicine Hour: Respiratory Infections, Part 2, Effects of Stress, More

Click here to view the original post.

medicaltent

This week on the Survival Medicine Hour, Joe Alton, MD aka as Dr. Bones and Amy Alton, ARNP aka Nurse Amy, November 19, 2016, discuss some tips to help “survive” the possibly stressful Christmas shopping experience. Ebay did a study that found 88% of shoppers had elevated heartbeats similar to an athlete running a marathon. What are the effects of a rapid heart rate on the body, and learn why you feel so exhausted after an anxiety attack.

The latest update on Zika theories about why some countries are experiencing a higher rate of birth defects than others. What is going on with the progress of a Zika vaccine and a breakthrough medication to limit the ill effects of the virus on unborn babies.

Respiratory infections affect millions of people each year. Knowing how to tell the difference between different types will help you, as the survival medic, determine the best treatment plan. Colds vs flus, how to tell the difference, and more…

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2016/11/18/survival-medicine-hour-respiratory-infections-pt2-effects-of-stress-and-morehttp://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2016/11/18/survival-medicine-hour-respiratory-infections-pt2-effects-of-stress-and-more

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

 

Joe and Amy Alton aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy

AmyandJoePodcast400x200

The Altons

 

Why The Disparity In Zika Affected Newborns?

Click here to view the original post.
zika virus

Zika Virus under the microscope

Zika virus hasn’t been on the front page much lately, but case numbers continue to rise in many countries. The World Health Organization stated recently that Zika infection has been documented in 75 countries throughout the globe.

One of the many unusual aspects of Zika virus is that Brazil has, far and away, the most cases of babies born with birth defects. The most prominent of these is microcephaly, a condition where the brain fails to grow normally, causing a striking appearance where the head is much smaller than normal. Brazil has about 2000 cases of this abnormality, while Colombia has the second highest with only 57; the U.S. is third with 31 cases, including miscarriages. Within Brazil itself, the Northeastern part of the country has the highest number of infants affected by the debilitating effects of the virus.

The American Society of Tropical Medicine, in its annual meeting in Atlanta, discussed this disparity, which has fueled a hotbed of speculation about the disparity.

A  Brazilian health official, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, suggests that vaccination against  Yellow Fever, a virus in the same family as Zika, may be a factor. In Northeastern Brazil, few receive this vaccine compared to other parts of the country. It’s possible, he says, that the vaccine may give some cross-protection against Zika.

A number of other theories exist, including effects on humans by certain pesticides used in the epidemic zone and, perhaps, contaminated lots of vaccines. However, no hard data has, as yet, implicated these and other possibilities as part of the equation.

Another factor may be the growing tendency of women to terminate their pregnancies in the face of a diagnosis of Zika infection. Still another, according to Albert Ko, a Yale professor, relates to the difficulty tracking numbers of abortions for this reason and the fact that many never know they had the infection at all. Zika has no symptoms whatsoever in 80% of patients. The rest experience fever, joint aches, rashes, and eye redness.

microcephaly-reuse-wiki

Microcephalic Infant

What is obvious, however, is that there are wide variations in the percentage of Zika infections to birth defects. Puerto Rico recently reported its first case of microcephaly in a newborn, but has catalogued  more than 30,000 people infected with Zika.

Professor Ko says that a new large-scale study will follow thousands of pregnant women with Zika diagnoses. Genetics, prior viral infections, and even the mosquitoes that transmit the virus will be evaluated. It’s possible that, with this information, a more definitive picture of factor involved in Zika-related birth abnormalities will emerge.

An issue not commonly considered is what effect Zika infection may have long-term in apparently unaffected infants. Will they reach normal milestones like walking and talking at the appropriate time? Down the road, will they perform adequately in school? It will take years to find out.

Meanwhile, cases continue to accumulate, mostly travel related. A total of close to 36,000 cases have been documented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States and the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico. New cases are still being reported in Florida by the Department of Health, which says that 1,165 total cases (153 in pregnant women) exist in the state as of November 11, 2016. Of these, 225 were transmitted by local mosquitoes.

Some good news: A vaccine called Zika Purified Inactivated Virus, or ZPIV, seems to be showing promise in research conducted, and human trials have begun at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. In addition, Dr. Michael Diamond of the University of Washington has identified an antibody that might protect the unborn fetus against the effects of the Zika virus on nervous tissue. Research is ongoing on these and other fronts in the battle against what has become a worldwide epidemic.

Joe Alton, MD

joealtonlibrary4

Dr. Alton

 Find out more about the Zika Virus in Joe Alton, MD’s book “The Zika Virus Handbook“, available at amazon.com

 

 

Video: Fish Antibiotic Update

Click here to view the original post.
2015 Birdhouse Inn Mountain Paradise View!

Mount LeConte at sunrise, Great Smokies

In this video, Joe Alton, MD addresses the concerns of those in the preparedness community who store veterinary equivalents of human antibiotics for use in post-apocalyptic scenarios. The FDA’s upcoming Veterinary Feed Directive has cast the availability of these items in doubt for 2017. As the first physician to write, years ago, about the utility of these products to save lives in long-term survival, Dr. Alton has evaluated the FDA’s action and knows their goals. He discusses how this affects, if at all, the future of fish/bird antibiotics’ availability for your survival medicine cabinet. Companion video to a recent article on the same topic.

This video has as its backdrop Mt. LeConte, highest peak in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

To watch, click below:

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

 

Joe and Amy Alton

JoeAmyLabcoatSMALL300x300

Joe Alton MD/Amy Alton ARNP

Find out more about antibiotics, infectious disease, and many other medical issues in disaster settings by getting a copy of our 700 page (!) Third Edition of “The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for when Medical Help is Not on the Way, now available on this website and also at Amazon.

 

Survival Medicine Hour: Giardia, Bear Safety and more

Click here to view the original post.
black bear

American Black Bear

In this episode of The Survival Medicine Hour, Joe Alton, MD and Amy Alton, ARNP discuss the hazards of trail blazing in Gatlinburg Tennessee, such as Bear Safety. Walking with a sturdy stick, making noise and keeping up situational awareness are all part of bear safety tips. Bears hibernate less deeply than some animals and can be found walking around even in the deep snow of winter. Always keep an eye out and learn all about bear safety.

giardia

Giardia lamblia

 

Recently, Dr. Alton talked about parasitic worms in survival scenarios, but there’s a more common parasite that infects our streams, waterways, and, unfortunately, intestines! Giardia Lambia is a common cause of severe diarrhea and is transmissible all sorts of ways. Find out more about this parasite and what fish antibiotic would be most effective to have in your medical storage.

Ways to prevent Giardia are covered in this episode and include strict and proper handwashing. Just a couple of the ways to avoid getting this parasite, as well as many others, include washing fruits and vegetables before eating or cooking, and using bottled water to brush your teeth if the water is suspect. Nurse Amy recommends demanding daycare workers use gloves when changing your infant or toddler’s diapers. Unfortunately, this is not a Federal regulation and is only a requirement in a few states, which are listed in this episode.

Even though a lot of us may severely disappointed come Tuesday evening’s election results, the earth is not going to end the next day. It may just feel that way.

Life is short, learn Nurse Amy’s secret motto for happiness. Hint: It isn’t a material thing.

All this and more on the Doom and Bloom Survival Medicine Hour!

Our books and custom hand-packed medical kits can be found at: https://store.doomandbloom.net

Here is the link to listen to this week’s episode. Don’t forget to subscribe to our Blogtalkradio Channel for updates

The Future of Fish Antibiotics in Survival?

Click here to view the original post.
Betta-Fish-Nurse-Amy

Siamese Fighting Fish (Betta splendens)

As the first physician to write, years ago, about aquarium and avian antibiotics as a survival tool, I’ve long realized their utility in preventing unnecessary deaths in true survival scenarios (in normal times, seek modern and standard medical care). Lately, I’ve received a lot of mail asking about the upcoming FDA Veterinary Feed Directive. Does it mean the end of the availability of fish and bird meds for placement in disaster medical storage?

To understand what the Veterinary Feed Directive is and what it means for the preparedness community, we should first describe the problem that the Directive aims to correct: Antibiotic resistance. There is an epidemic of antibiotic resistance in this country, and it exists, not because of pet bird or fish antibiotic use, not because “preppers” might put them in a disaster medical kit, nor even primarily from the overuse by physicians. It is due to the excessive use of antibiotics on livestock. About 80% of antibiotics used in the United States are given to food-producing animals.

antibioticslivestock

The definition of a “Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD) drug”, according to section 504 of the FD&C Act (21 USC 354) states that it is “[a] drug intended for use in or on animal feed. The CDC’s goal #1 of decreasing the emergence of antibiotic resistance and preventing the spread of resistant infections has three objectives (see page 33):

1       -“Implement public health programs and reporting policies that advance antibiotic resistance prevention and foster antibiotic stewardship in healthcare settings and the community. “

2       -“Eliminate the use of medically important antibiotics for growth promotion in animals and bring other in-feed uses of antibiotics, for treatment and disease control and prevention of disease, under veterinary oversight. “

3       –“Identify and implement measures to foster stewardship of antibiotics in animals.”

As you can see, 2 of 3 of the above relate specifically to animals. Why are so many antibiotics given to livestock? It’s not, primarily, to treat infections that they may have. It’s actually because, for reasons that aren’t completely clear, it seems to speed their growth and gets them to market sooner. In other words, the profit motive. This is standard practice here in the U.S., but some countries, like Denmark, have banned the use of antibiotics on livestock unless they need them to treat disease.

The FDA and CDC are concerned about the excessive use of antibiotics in general and, in particular, on the animals that produce our food. CDC director Dr. Tom Frieden mentioned some months ago that an increased “stewardship” (in other words, control) of these meds was indicated to decrease the development of antibiotic resistance. The Veterinary Feed Directive is part of that response.

What are the drugs affected by the Veterinary Feed Directive? Here they are:

Established drug name Examples of proprietary drug name(s)
chlortetracycline Aureomycin, Aureomycyn, Chlora-Cycline, Chloronex, Chlortetracycline, Chlortetracycline Bisulfate, Chlortet-Soluble-O, CTC, Fermycin, Pennchlor
erythromycin Gallimycin
gentamicin Garacin, Gen-Gard, GentaMed, Gentocin, Gentoral
lincomycin Linco, Lincomed, Lincomix, Lincomycin, Lincomycin Hydrochloride, Lincosol, Linxmed-SP
lincomycin/spectinomycin  Lincomycin S, Lincomycin-Spectinomycin, L-S, SpecLinx
neomycin Biosol Liquid, Neo, Neomed, Neomix, Neomycin, Neomycin Liquid, Neomycin Sulfate, Neo-Sol, Neosol, Neosol-Oral, Neovet
oxytetracycline Agrimycin, Citratet, Medamycin, Oxymarine, Oxymycin, Oxy-Sol, Oxytet, Oxytetracycline, Oxytetracycline HCL, Oxy WS, Pennox, Terramycin, Terra-Vet, Tetravet-CA, Tetroxy, Tetroxy Aquatic, Tetroxy HCA
penicillin Han-Pen, Penaqua Sol-G, Penicillin G Potassium, R-Pen, Solu-Pen
spectinomycin Spectam
sulfadimethoxine Agribon, Albon, Di-Methox, SDM, Sulfabiotic, Sulfadimethoxine, Sulfadived, Sulfamed-G, Sulforal, Sulfasol
sulfamethazine SMZ-Med, Sulfa, Sulmet
sulfaquinoxaline S.Q. Solution, Sulfa-Nox, Sulfaquinoxaline Sodium, Sulfaquinoxaline Solubilized, Sul-Q-Nox, Sulquin
tetracycline Duramycin, Polyotic, Solu/Tet, Solu-Tet, Supercycline, Terra-Vet, Tet, Tetra-Bac, Tetracycline, Tetracycline Hydrochloride, Tetramed, Tetra-Sal, Tetrasol, Tet-Sol, TC Vet

“Note: apramycin, carbomycin/oxytetracycline*, chlortetracycline/sulfamethazine*, streptomycin, sulfachloropyrazine, sulfachlorpyridazine, and sulfamerazine/sulfamethazine/sulfaquinoxaline* are expected to transition to Rx status, but are not marketed at this time. If they return to the market after January 1, 2017, they will require a prescription from a veterinarian.”

If you look at the list above, you’ll see no mention of the common aquarium/avian antibiotics used in the pet industry. Fish-Mox (Amoxicillin) is not included in the list. Neither is doxycycline, metronidazole, nor others that I’ve recommended for disaster storage. Some first-generation drugs, like Penicillin and Tetracycline, are mentioned but not any of the proprietary names related to the ornamental trade. That doesn’t mean that they might not include them at some point. As the earliest antibiotics, they have been subject to significant resistance, and might not be the best choices for survival storage in any case.

At present, Thomas Labs, one of the largest distributors of fish and bird antibiotics for the pet trade, has not visibly changed any of its policies regarding sale of these products. Their labeling clearly states “Not for Human Use”, and many sites that sell their products  include this statement:

“…Thomas Labs sources it’s (sic) antibiotics from the same USP grade manufacturing as antibiotics used for humans, but we and Thomas Labs are not doctors and do not deal in human health problems, or prescription medications.  Only a doctor can correctly prescribe antibiotics for specific need in humans.  We strongly discourage anyone who wants to take Fish Antibiotics for themselves…”

It seems clear that the Veterinary Feed Directive considers livestock and not hobby fish and birds to be the highest priority targets. If they did,  the pet trade might cease to exist.

The Veterinary Feed Directive may, indeed, decrease the incidence of bacterial resistance in the U.S. So will the wise use of antibiotics by the nation’s physicians. Hopefully, one day food livestock will be raised antibiotic-free; some companies are already taking this step.

From a preparedness standpoint, I still believe that having antibiotics in your medical kit will save lives in a long-term disaster or survival setting. The ones I have written about over the years are still available, at least for the time being; those medically responsible in times of trouble will find them to be useful tools in the medical woodshed.

 

Joe Alton, MD

AuthorJoe

Joe Alton, MD is a physician, author, and medical preparedness writer for disaster and long-term survival scenarios where medical help is not available for the foreseeable future. For more information on these and other topics, see the Altons’ #1 Amazon bestseller “The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for when Medical Help is Not on the Way“.

Parasitic Worms

Click here to view the original post.
parasiticwormEM

parasitic worm

It’s important to realize that there are infections not commonly seen today in developed countries that may become major issues if a disaster throws you off the grid. Knowing which disease-causing organisms exist in your area, even if they are not major problems today, will be important to keep your loved ones healthy.

The word “parasite” comes from the Greek word Parastos, meaning “someone that eats at someone else’s table”. When we think of para- sites, none give us the creeps more than having worms.

Parasites like ticks, fleas, mites, and lice live on our skin or just beneath; these are called ectoparasites. Worms, also known as helminths, are endoparasites. They live deep in our intestines or other core organs, often gaining sustenance by sharing our partly-digested food. They are also egg-laying machines, with some depositing tens of thousands a day into their host.

Many different worms are known to infest the human body: nematodes, trematodes, flatworms, and flukes, are just a few. The diseases they cause are a major health issue in underdeveloped countries due to difficulties with sanitation. Even in developed nations, any disaster that impairs access to safe food and water could cause cases of parasitic worms to skyrocket.

Worm infestation is usually caused by ingesting soil that contains their eggs. While this may seem an unlikely happenstance to you, areas where people defecate openly and fail to wash their hands leads to contaminated soil. Some of this soil ends up on people’s hands, and then goes to their mouth when they touch their face.

Parasitic worms range in size from microscopic to very long, depending on the species. The most common infection we’ll see in the U.S. is the tiny Pinworm, which causes anal itching in 40 million Americans. However, almost a quarter of the world’s population has some type of worm infestation. Children are especially vulnerable and may experience stunted growth and developmental problems as a consequence.

Worm eggs or larvae enter the body through the mouth, nose, anus, or breaks in the skin. Amazingly, many helminths actually require human stomach acid to dissolve their egg shells to allow them to hatch. Once hatched, the acid-immune larvae travel from the stomach and attach themselves to the walls of the intestinal tract. Some species infest the liver and lungs as well.

SYMPTOMS OF WORM INFESTATIONS

Colonization by worms may be asymptomatic or, as in the case of pin- worms, just involve some itching in the anal area. With some species, however, a large concentration of organisms can cause serious problems.

Each type of worms cause different symptoms, but you should suspect their presence in otherwise-unexplained cases of:

  • Constipation or diarrhea
  • Abdominal swelling or gas
  • Abdominal pain or cramps
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Weight loss
  • Constant urge to have a bowel movement.
  • Unexplained skin rashes or sores.
  • Anal itching
  • Constant fatigue.
  • Chronic muscle and joint aches.
  • Malnutrition

The above represents a broad array of symptoms, and makes me wonder if the number of cases of worm infestation is underestimated, even in countries with modern infrastructures.

CONSEQUENCES OF WORM INFESTATIONS

In rare cases, the population of internal parasites is so high that it causes an obstruction of the bowels. Worm species that invade the liver or lungs can cause respiratory distress or a weakened metabolism. All of these complications may result in the death of the patient.

Your body knows when it has been invaded and sets up an immune response against the worm. Success is limited, however, and all the energy put into defense may weaken the ability to fight“secondary” infections that may occur. The more issues the body has to deal with, the less effective it is in fighting them.

Some worms actually compete with your body for the food that you take in. A species known as Ascaris, for example, will attach to the wall of your intestine and eat partially digested food that comes its way. This competition prevents you from absorbing nutrients effectively, and malnutrition results.

TYPES OF WORMS

There are numerous types of helminthic infections based on the species involved. Infections are often named for the species with the suffix “-asis” (for example, ascariasis), as opposed to other infections/inflammations, which often end with the body part affected and the suffix “-itis” (for example, tonsillitis).

Although there many worms that infect humans, some of the more common types are

 

Pinworms

pinworm-cycle

Pinworm life cycle

Pinworms are a type of nematode called a roundworm. Reaching only 1/3 inch in length, they lay eggs around the host’s anus, usually at night. This leads to an itching sensation which can become severe. Pinworms are the most common parasitic worm infection in the United States

A cycle then develops where contaminated fingers from scratching come in contact with the mouth. This transports the eggs inside the body where they hatch.

You can test for pinworms simply by placing adhesive tape on the anal region of the patient. Inspect the tape for worms (eggs may also be seen with a low-power microscope) after a few hours or the next morning.

 

Hookworms

1982 Dr. ?? This enlargement shows hookworms, Ancylostoma caninum attached to the intestinal mucosa. Barely visible larvae penetrate the skin (often through bare feet), are carried to the lungs, go through the respiratory tract to the mouth, are swallowed, and eventually reach the small intestine. This journey takes about a week.

hookworms

Hookworms are another roundworm and one of the most common helminth infections worldwide. The parasite feeds on blood from vessels in the intestinal walls. Hookworm infestation is sometimes asymptomatic, but can cause anemia as well as abdominal symptoms.

Occasionally, a larval (juvenile) hookworm that uses a non-human host may penetrate the skin of a human. Although it can’t go into the organs, it can cause a skin disease called “Larva Migrans”, once known as “creeping eruption”.

With Larva Migrans, you can see serpentine vein-like lesions with itching in the skin. As the larva move, areas where they previously were may become crusty and very itchy.

 

Ascaris

parasiticworm

ascaris super-infestation

The largest intestinal roundworm, reaching 14 inches, is known as Ascaris. It is thought that there are 2 billion people that carry this worm, mostly in poorly developed countries.

Ascaris eggs, when ingested, become a larvae that enters the blood- stream through the small intestine. It reaches the lung, where it leaves the circulation and is eventually coughed up, swallowed, and goes back to the intestine, where it matures. Once mature, the female worm can produce up to 200,000 eggs a day.

Ascaris effects may include bloody phlegm, fever, cough, and abdominal symptoms. If the concentration of worms is high enough, they may begin to leave the body through the anus, nose, or mouth.

 

Tapeworms

tapeworm

tapeworm with 12 inch ruler at bottom for comparison

Tapeworm is a type of infection caused by a flatworm that lives mostly in Asia and Africa. The worm is, indeed, flat. Tapeworm eggs can form
walled-off areas called “cysts” in body tissues and organs. If larvae are ingested, however, they will mature into adult tapeworms in the intestines. The adults are segmented and reach prodigious lengths up to 55 (!) feet long.

Symptoms are typical for other helminth infections but symptoms related to the infested organ may also be seen.

TREATMENT OF WORM INFESTATIONS

Medications that can kill parasitic worms are called “vermiculicides” or “vermicides“. All are prescription drugs, although persons with travel plans to underdeveloped countries shouldn’t have trouble getting these from their physician.

Albendazole (brand name Albenza for roundworms) 400 mg once or twice.

Mebendazole (only available in generic form; most specific for pinworm infestation) 100 mg twice a day for 3 days or 500 mg

Pyrantel pamoate (common ingredient in heartworm meds for dogs) 11 mg/kg once, some species once daily up to 3 days.

Praziquantel (brand name Biltricide for tapeworms, various dosages depending on worm species)

Dosing may vary with some of these medications dependent on the type of worm. A second course of therapy is administered if the patient is not cured in 2-4 weeks.

Naturally anti-helminthic plants also exist. Garlic, ingested fresh and raw, is thought to be an effective way to eliminate worms. Wormwood, Clove, Papaya, Pineapple, Cinnamon, Turmeric, and Plumeria have all been reported to be helpful. Interestingly, some believe that tobacco may help eliminate worms.

Careful attention to hygiene, wearing shoes when outside, and, among medical providers, strict glove use will decrease the likelihood of passing worms or their eggs from person to person. Hand washing, especially before preparing food, is considered especially important in preventing  community-wide outbreaks.

Joe Alton, MD

AuthorJoe

Dr. Alton aka Dr. Bones

 

7 Sensible Ways To Get Your Kids Dirty (and Healthy)

Click here to view the original post.
mud-play

image by publicdomainpictures.net

I have, on many occasions, written about the importance of good hygiene and sanitation on the chances of a family or survival group succeeding, even when everything else fails. That’s all well and good, but what can be done before a disaster to impart a resistance to infection in the next generation?

In modern times we have, as a matter of “good parenting”, made every effort to keep our children with their noses wiped and their hands clean. Indeed, these are the basics of respiratory hygiene to prevent things like colds and flus. However, are our kids too clean? In our never-ending battle to keep them shiny and bright, have we, instead, made them more prone to the very microbes from which we want to protect then?

Many scientists and physicians think so. In 1989, researcher Dr. David Strachan suggested the hypothesis that the failure of children to be exposed to infectious bugs and parasites may be responsible for the epidemic of allergies and allergic conditions like asthma. This was called the “Hygiene Hypothesis” and the lack of exposure to microbes was, later, more broadly applied to other diseases ranging from hay fever to diabetes to multiple sclerosis.

The theory is based on the thought that avoidance of common germs suppresses the development of a normal immune system. In addition to microbe-avoiding practices like staying inside and not getting dirty, just the fact that modern families are smaller than those 100 years ago results in less passing-around of common infections. This, in turn, leads to the failure to develop immunity against them or the

tolerance that would prevent allergic reactions.

Later studies suggest that some of the skin, gut, and respiratory germs we try so hard to avoid are actually “old friends” that have been with us since ancient times, and lack of exposure to them doesn’t allow our immune systems to develop nor function appropriately. Researchers like Dr. Graham Rook compared the immature immune system to a computer; it has many programs, but needs “data” in the form of diverse germ exposures to allow the “program” to identify those that are harmful. The fetus receives some of this data even as it passes through the vaginal canal during birth.

pixabay-old-farm

old farm via pixabay images

When most of us lived on farms or in less-than-pristine cities, we were exposed to plenty of germs from a young age due to time spent outside with animals or with lots of other people. Now, unless they’re playing Pokemon Go, the majority of kids aren’t motivated to go outside or, certainly, get dirty. In the final analysis, never getting dirty as a child may be hazardous to your future health.

Having said all this, most parents will have trouble throwing their kids in the nearest pig sty or making mud pies with Rover’s, um, poo. There are still disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites out there that you’d like to avoid. Is there a middle ground?

Here are some things you might consider:

Avoid antibiotics: The medical profession may have been remiss in over-prescribing antibiotics, but there are antibiotics in food as well. Indeed, 70-80% of antibiotics are given to livestock, not to treat infection, but to make they grow faster and get them to market sooner. Stick with antibiotic-free eggs, milk, and meats.

Avoid anti-bacterial soaps: Triclosan, the active antibiotic ingredient in many brands, has recently been banned by the FDA due to the risk of antibiotic resistance and the lack of evidence of any medical benefit. Use regular soap and water for washing.

Tailor Handwashing Strategies to the Situation:  If you’re in a city where open sewers run through the streets and people are tossing buckets of excrement out the window, have your kids wash their hands conscientiously. In clean environments where there isn’t a raging epidemic, however, don’t freak out over dirty hands.

Don’t Bathe Every Day: Not only should your kids be exposed to dirt to develop their immune system, but bathing too often might do more harm than good. Daily showers removes protective skin oils and causes drying and irritation. You’re also washing away the good bacteria that lives on your skin.

dog-and-kid-pixabay

image by pixabay.com

Get Your Kid a Pet: Not every kid has the good fortune of living on a farm, but they’ll benefit from a furry pet. Dogs seem to give more resistance to colds and allergic skin conditions like eczema than cats, but early cat exposure might give more protection against asthma. Why not have both?

Be Sensible About Animal Droppings:  Yes, I know that you can’t avoid trace amounts of animal excrement in your kids’ environment, but don’t let them play in the cat litter and you should remove pet and wild animal excrement from play areas.

Get your kids outside when they’re young: In these days where we have legitimate concerns about children’s safety, you might be reluctant to let your kids go outside by themselves. Here’s an idea: Go out with them, to parks, wilderness areas, and other places where both adults and kids can reap real benefits.

The more you encourage outdoor activities early, the more they become part of the next generation’s culture; let the kids get a little dirty, and you might give them a healthier future.

Joe Alton, MD

AuthorJoe

Fill those holes in your medical supplies by checking out Nurse Amy’s entire line of kit and individual items at store.doomandbloom.net!